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WHO Releases Interim NTD Guidance, Trichiasis Cases Down 74% since 2002 & Other NTD News

News roundup

This news roundup is a collection of headlines and other items on neglected tropical diseases, and does not reflect the work or the views of the Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center.

Tropical Data is a data-collection initiative that helps countries carry out surveys as they work towards eliminating trachoma. 



Lymphatic filariasis

Economic Costs and Benefits of Community-Based Lymphedema-Management Programs for Lymphatic Filariasis in India

Larry Sawers and Eileen Stillwaggonn
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
In a 2016 study in Khurda district, Odisha (formerly Orissa), India, we demonstrated that the societal economic benefits of MMDP for filarial lymphedema were 130 times the costs of such interventions. The present article uses a methodology similar to that used in the Odisha study to estimate the costs and benefits of MMDP for all of India. [Author’s Dedication. Eileen Stillwaggon passed away not long after this paper was accepted for publication by the AJTMH. Eileen’s participation in this project exemplifies qualities that she brought to all of her scholarship. She applied her skills as an economist to show that curing or preventing disease could be far cheaper than failing to do so. From her first piece of published research to her last, she worked to undermine racial and gender discrimination. A recurrent theme in her research were efforts to expose how racism distorts medical research and thus health policy. Her passion to make the world a better place will be sorely missed.]


Moxidectin: an oral treatment for human onchocerciasis

Philip Milton, Jonathan I. D. Hamley, Martin Walker and María-Gloria Basáñez
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Moxidectin is a milbemycin endectocide recently approved for the treatment of human onchocerciasis. Onchocerciasis, earmarked for elimination of transmission, is a filarial infection endemic in Africa, Yemen, and the Amazonian focus straddling Venezuela and Brazil. Concerns over whether the predominant treatment strategy (yearly mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin) is sufficient to achieve elimination in all endemic foci have refocussed attention upon alternative treatments. Moxidectin’s stronger and longer microfilarial suppression compared to ivermectin in both phase II and III clinical trials indicates its potential as a novel powerful drug for onchocerciasis elimination.

Center Fights River Blindness in Urban Setting

The Carter Center
When Ethiopia’s goal was control of river blindness, people in highly endemic areas were given the drug ivermectin (Mectizan®, donated by Merck & Co., Inc.) once a year via mass drug administration (MDA). Local volunteers called community-directed distributors, or CDDs, educate people, measure for the correct dose, and administer the medication. Elimination requires intensified intervention efforts: Now The Carter Center assists the Federal Ministry of Health with Mectizan treatments two times a year, four times in areas identified as hot spots. Different settings require different approaches.


Test, Treat, Track, Test, and Treat Active Surveillance toward Elimination of Schistosomiasis: A Feasibility Study

Reda Ramzy et al.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
We assessed the feasibility of using a test, treat, track, test, and treat (5T) active surveillance strategy to identify and treat individuals with schistosomiasis in three very low-prevalence villages in Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. . . Of 388 persons treated, 368 (94.8%) had posttreatment POC-CCA tests 3–4 weeks after treatment, and 81.8% (301) became negative. The 67 persons remaining positive had negative results after a second treatment. Therefore, all those found positive, treated, and followed up were negative following one or two treatments. Analysis of efforts as expressed in person-hours indicates that 4,459 person-hours were required for these 5T activities, with nearly 65% of that time spent carrying out interviews, treatments, and evaluations following treatment. The 5T strategy appears feasible and acceptable as programs move toward elimination.

Schistosomiasis Control in Nigeria: Moving Round the Circle?

Oyetunde T. Oyeyemi
Annals of Global Health
This viewpoint strongly advocates a commitment to the integrated control approach through the development of robust schistosomiasis control policy for the country. It stressed the need for research priorities in neglected areas of schistosomiasis that are germane for control of the disease. The government’s willpower to implement important recommendations from research outcomes is important to achieve success.

The big gulp: Inside-out protection of parasitic worms against host defenses

Morgridge Institute for Research
A team of developmental biologists at the Morgridge Institute for Research has discovered a means by which schistosomes, parasitic worms that infect more than 200 million people in tropical climates, are able to outfox the host's immune system. Morgridge postdoctoral fellow Jayhun Lee and colleagues reported in today's issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) that the parasite's esophageal gland, an accessory organ of the digestive tract, mediates an immune-evasion mechanism that is essential for survival in the host.

Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis

First international external quality assessment scheme of nucleic acid amplification tests. . .

Piet Cools et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tests that detect parasite DNA in human stool are increasingly being used for the diagnosis of infections with intestinal worms, including schistosomiasis. To ensure the quality in diagnostic testing of these parasitic worms, it is important that laboratories evaluate the diagnostic performance of their DNA-based tests. This can best be achieved by participating in an external quality assessment scheme (EQAS). An EQAS involves a blinded process where test results reported by a laboratory are compared to those reported by reference or expert laboratories, allowing for an objective assessment of the diagnostic performance of a laboratory. Currently, such an EQAS for parasitic worms is lacking. We therefore piloted an international EQAS for the diagnosis of parasitic worms involving 15 laboratories in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Although most laboratories performed well, we could clearly identify those laboratories that may need to improve their test protocol. We found that laboratories were using many different test protocols, and further research should aim to verify whether this has an impact on the performance of the diagnostic outcomes.

Integration of health education intervention to improve the compliance to mass drug administration. . .

Tilak Chandra Nath et al.
Parasite Epidemiology and Control
A mixed-method study, utilizing PRISM (Practical Robust Implementation Sustainability Model) framework, was conducted between July 2017 to March 2018 in Dhaka and Sylhet divisions of Bangladesh. . . Increased knowledge score and behaviour changes due to [health education, or] HE intervention demonstrated in this study hint that integration of HE with MDA is feasible and can be promising to promote MDA compliance and to reduce STH prevalence in this setting. However, the allocation of adequate budget, as well as coordination and collaboration with local political context, should be addressed for the sustainability of integration.


WHO Alliance for the Global Elimination of Trachoma by 2020: progress report, 2019

World Health Organization
Weekly Epidemiological Record
This report summarizes work conducted during 2019 to apply the SAFE strategy [Surgery for TT, Antibiotics to clear ocular C. trachomatis infection and Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement] against trachoma. It also provides estimates of the global population at risk of trachoma blindness based on district-by-district data submitted to WHO by national programmes. Summarizing the underlying epidemiological situation in this way is inherently complex, because up to 3 estimates of prevalence in any district may be valid at different times in a calendar year.

National approaches to trichiasis surgical follow-up, outcome assessment and surgeon audit in trachoma-endemic countries...

Grace Mwangi, Paul Courtright and Anthony W Solomon
British Journal of Ophthamology
Poor outcomes of trichiasis surgery, including postoperative trichiasis, are common in many trachoma-endemic countries in Africa. To improve outcomes, WHO recommends regular follow-up and outcome assessment of surgical cases plus audit of trichiasis surgeons. . . A cross-sectional survey was carried out between May and July 2018, involving all 29 known-trachoma-endemic countries in Africa. An emailed questionnaire was used to collect information on national targets for surgical outcomes, policies, monitoring and strategies to address underperformance by surgeons. . . Only four countries reported having a national policy for trichiasis surgery follow-up and outcome assessment and only two had a national policy for conducting audits of trichiasis surgeons. Only 9 of the 27 countries had a cut-off point at which poorly performing surgeons would be instructed to discontinue surgery until retraining or other interventions had been undertaken.

An Integrated Approach to Trachoma, other Neglected Infectious Diseases, and Eye Diseases that Can Cause Blindness...

Pan American Health Organization
In 2018, an estimated five million people in the Region of the Americas lived in areas where trachoma is a public health problem, mainly in Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, and Peru. In an effort to establish the situation of trachoma in the Region, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has promoted, among other activities, a search for groups affected by this disease in other countries, primarily in populations living in conditions of vulnerability, such as those in the Amazon region. In October 2019 a meeting was held in Panama City, Panama, to establish a roadmap for addressing trachoma in conjunction with other neglected infectious diseases (such as soil-transmitted helminth infections, lymphatic filariasis, ectoparasitic diseases, leprosy, Chagas disease, and yaws) and other blinding eye diseases (mature cataract and advanced pterygium) in remote populations in the Amazon region. This report—available in Spanish, English, and Portuguese—presents the recommendations of the meeting’s participants in two areas of work: 1) integrated mapping of the diseases and associated risk factors; and 2) integrated actions for the control and elimination of these diseases.


Considerations for implementing mass treatment, active case‐finding and population-based surveys for neglected tropical diseases

World Health Organization
This document provides a decision-making framework for implementation of mass treatment interventions, active case-finding campaigns and population-based surveys for neglected tropical diseases in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. A two-step approach is proposed: a risk–benefit assessment, to decide if the planned activity should proceed; and an examination of a list of precautionary measures that should be applied with the aim of decreasing the risk of transmission of COVID-19 associated with the activity, and strengthening the capacity of the health system to manage any residual risk. This guidance note is intended to health authorities, NTD programme managers and their supporting partners.

Strategies supporting the prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic

John P. Ehrenberg et al.
Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases represent a public health challenge of international concern. They include a large group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which are of zoonotic nature. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), another emerging zoonotic disease, has just increased the stakes exponentially. Most NTDs are subject to the impact of some of the very same human-related activities triggering other emerging and re-emerging diseases, including COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bird flu and swine flu. It is conceivable that COVID-19 will exacerbate the NTDs, as it will divert much needed financial and human resources. There is considerable concern that recent progress achieved with control and elimination efforts will be reverted. Future potential strategies will need to reconsider the determinants of health in NTDs in order to galvanize efforts and come up with a comprehensive, well defined programme that will set the stage for an effective multi-sectorial approach. In this Commentary, we propose areas of potential synergies between the COVID-19 pandemic control efforts, other health and non-health sector initiatives and NTD control and elimination programmes.

Development and application of an electronic treatment register: a system for enumerating populations and monitoring treatment..

William E. Oswald et al.
Global Health Action
We developed an electronic treatment register for the DeWorm3 Project, a cluster-randomised, controlled trial in Benin, India, and Malawi testing the feasibility of interrupting transmission of soil-transmitted helminths through community-wide mass drug administration. The electronic treatment register was designed in xlsform, deployed via the SurveyCTO mobile data collection platform, and implemented on smartphones running the Android operating system. The versatile system enables collection of census and treatment status information, facilitates data aggregation and visualisation, and permits real-time feedback loops during implementation of mass drug administration. Here we describe the system’s design and use within the DeWorm3 Project and key features, and by sharing the register here, we hope our readers will further explore its use within their research and disease-control activities.

How many neglected tropical diseases can we eliminate by 2030? RSTMH Presidential Address

David Mabey
Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Integrated approaches and multisectoral collaboration are recommended to achieve these targets, with increased emphasis on country ownership of NTD programmes, which can play an important role in achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of universal health coverage by 2030. Increased emphasis should be placed on measuring the impact of interventions against NTDs rather than simply reporting the number of treatments given. Guinea worm and yaws are targeted for global eradication by 2030 and trachoma is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem. How likely is it that these targets will be met?

Opinion: Why we need to focus on stigma and discrimination — 5 lessons from the NTD field

Anna van 't Noordende and Heleen Broekkamp
NTDs are a diverse group of infectious diseases that prevail in 149 countries, often in poor areas, and affect more than 1 billion people worldwide. This means that 1 in 8 people globally have an NTD. Many NTDs are not treated in time — or at all — and those affected may suffer from severe complications, visible impairments, and disabilities. Cultural and local beliefs, fears, and incorrect ideas about the diseases and their complications often lead to stigma and discrimination. . . The Guides on Stigma and Mental Wellbeing share information on best practices and on how stigma manifests, how it can be reduced, and how to assess a person’s experience of it. These practical tools in the guides may help aid workers or global health practitioners recognize and counter stigma and discrimination in their personal or professional environments.

ESPEN 2019: Key Achievements

Expanded Special Program for Elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (ESPEN)
Achieving our common vision of an Africa free of NTDs requires concerted efforts in critical areas. We need political commitment and investment to ensure health systems are resilient. In doing so, we can accelerate momentum towards attaining universal health coverage and beating NTDs. [Also available in French and Portuguese]


DiTECT-HAT: Diagnostic Tools for Human African Trypanosomiasis Elimination and Clinical Trials

Horozon 2020 Framework Programme of the European Union
The objective of the DiTECT-HAT project is to deliver new, cost-effective algorithms for human African trypanosomiasis diagnosis within an elimination context, more specifically for passive case detection, post-elimination monitoring and early treatment outcome assessment. For more info you can visit the project website: DiTECT-HAT project partners are the national sleeping sickness control programs of Guinea and RD Congo, Institut Pierre Richet (Côte d’Ivoire), CIRDES (Burkina Faso), INRB (RD Congo), University of Liverpool, Institute of Tropical Medicine (Belgium) and IRD (France). The project is funded by EDCTP2 programme, supported by the European Union (Horizon 2020). [Also available in French]

Genetic tools discriminate strains of Leishmania infantum isolated from humans and dogs in Sicily, Italy

Germano Castelli et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
High levels of Leishmania spp. infections affecting both humans and animals are recognized among Italian regions; in particular, Sicily is an endemic area for Leishmania infantum. In this study 78 Sicilian L. infantum strains isolated from humans and dogs were assessed to investigate their biodiversity by genetic tools. Results were compared with 6 L. infantum reference strains included in the analysis. The evaluation of K26 genetic markers identified 91% of samples as belonging to the MON-1 zymodeme, confirming it as the predominant strain in the Mediterranean area and 9% of the samples–all isolated from humans–as non-MON-1. Multilocus microsatellite typing has proven to be a powerful tool to discriminate strains showing all the isolated strains clustered in two genetically distinct populations, corresponding to human and canine isolates, respectively. A further subdivision was observed between the two main groups, giving in the human population a correlation between microsatellite profile and geographical origin. Our results demonstrate that genetic tools are able to discriminate Leishmania strains and to give useful insights into the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, raising questions on the role of dogs as main reservoirs for human leishmaniasis in the Sicily region. [Uncorrected Proof]

Finalists Named in Competition for $100 Million Grant

MacArthur Foundation
Six bold solutions to critical social challenges were named finalists today in 100&Change, MacArthur's global competition for a single $100 million grant. The proposals address diverse and systemic problems, such as ocean health, homelessness, oxygen therapy, health disparities, news deserts, and mosquito-borne disease. “The critical challenges that these six ambitious proposals are tackling existed long before the pandemic,” said MacArthur President John Palfrey. “The extraordinary inequality that has been accentuated by the coronavirus will continue to exist after it subsides, unless we start to reimagine our future and support the reinvention of systems and structures that create a more just, equitable, and resilient world. MacArthur is committed to supporting organizations that think big, because solutions are possible.”

FETP at 40: Expanding the footprint of disease detectives worldwide

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Since 1980, CDC has helped train more than 18,000 disease detectives in over 80 countries through its flagship global Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP). 2020 is the 40th anniversary of CDC supporting the establishment of Thailand’s Field Epidemiology Training Program, the first FETP site created outside of North America. FETPs expand CDC’s reach by training public health professionals to investigate and respond to disease outbreaks and other health threats. Through these programs, countries help fulfill the International Health Regulations (IHR) requirements for disease surveillance and response, and strengthen their capacity by conducting surveillance, analyzing data, and making sound evidence-based decisions. FETPs also work to address the increasingly important burden of noncommunicable diseases.

Obituary - Professor Marleen Boelaert, 1960–2020

The World Health Organization
It is with great sadness and grief that we learnt of the passing of Professor Marleen Boelaert. She died in her native Belgium after a long battle with illness on 12 June 2020. Professor Boelaert will be remembered as a scientist and researcher who devoted her professional and personal life to alleviating the suffering of people from the devastating effects of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), mainly human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and leishmaniasis.


How controlling neglected tropical diseases can help curb Covid-19

Maria Rebollo Polo
The Herald (Zimbabwe)
Whilst Covid-19 receives unprecedented media attention, for many years NTDs were, as their name suggests “neglected”, receiving scant attention from the world’s leaders and minimal funding. However, Covid-19 and NTDs can both be prevented by taking the same preventative measures. Clean water, good hygiene and adequate sanitation are the foundations for fighting NTDs, as much as they are with Covid-19.

Let’s not forget the epidemic during the pandemic

Nirmal Kumar Ganguly
The Indian Express
As we grapple with the magnitude of changes brought by the Covid-19 pandemic, we must also consider its impact on other health emergencies. Disease outbreaks usually result in single-minded efforts to stem the tide, distracting from other public health issues in the process. The 2014-16 Ebola outbreak resulted in the loss of an additional 10,600 West African lives due to HIV, TB and malaria. Now, as health services, resources and attention are diverted to the fight against Covid-19, experts have warned that the pandemic will indirectly exact a secondary toll. This could be particularly catastrophic when it comes to programmes to combat Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs).

Africa closes in on one million COVID-19 cases

World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa
COVID-19 infections in Africa will exceed one million cases in the coming days as the pandemic surges in several hotspot countries. In a little more than three weeks, the number of cases on the continent almost doubled to 889 457, with 18 806 deaths. Overall, the pandemic is accelerating with the number of new cases increasing by 50% during the last 14 days compared with the previous fortnight. However, only five countries account for about 75% of the cumulative COVID-19 cases – they are Algeria, Egypt, Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. South Africa alone accounts for around half of the continent’s total cases. Deaths are also increasing. A total of 4376 new deaths were recorded during the last 14 days, representing a 22% increase from the previous two weeks.

Over 10 000 health workers in Africa infected with COVID-19

World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa
The World Health Organization (WHO) today warned of the threat posed by COVID-19 to health workers across Africa. More than 10 000 health workers in the 40 countries which have reported on such infections have been infected with COVID-19 so far, a sign of the challenges medical staff on the frontlines of the outbreak face. This comes as COVID-19 cases in Africa appear to be gathering pace. There are now more than 750 000 cases of COVID-19, with over 15 000 deaths. Some countries are approaching a critical number of infections that can place stress on health systems. South Africa is now among the worst-hit countries in the world.

Symptom Duration and Risk Factors for Delayed Return to Usual Health Among Outpatients with COVID-19...

Mark W. Tenforde et al.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Relatively little is known about the clinical course of COVID-19 and return to baseline health for persons with milder, outpatient illness. In a multistate telephone survey of symptomatic adults who had a positive outpatient test result for SARS-CoV-2 infection, 35% had not returned to their usual state of health when interviewed 2–3 weeks after testing. Among persons aged 18–34 years with no chronic medical conditions, one in five had not returned to their usual state of health. COVID-19 can result in prolonged illness, even among young adults without underlying chronic medical conditions. Effective public health messaging targeting these groups is warranted.

JCDecaux partners with the END Fund to combat COVID-19 in South Africa

African Media Agency
Business Ghana
JCDecaux Africa, the #1 out of home advertising company in Africa — known for its street furniture, airport, roadside digital and billboard advertising — is working with the END Fund to educate and promote responsible behaviour around COVID-19 in South Africa. . . “For communities already at risk of neglected tropical diseases, the COVID-19 pandemic is an additional burden – a crisis upon a crisis. All of us at the END Fund are eager to do anything we can to limit the impact of COVID-19 on this vulnerable population. By partnering with JCDecaux to amplify proper hygiene and handwashing messaging from the World Health Organization Afro, we seek to share critical information and inform sustainable behavior change to beat both COVID-19 and NTDs.”- said Ms. Joy Ruwodo, Director of Public Affairs (Africa Region).

Developing a low-cost and accessible COVID-19 vaccine for global health

Peter J. Hotez and Maria Elena Bottzzi
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
There is an urgent need to advance safe and affordable COVID-19 vaccines for low- and middle-income countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Such vaccines rely on proven technologies such as recombinant protein–based vaccines to facilitate its transfer for emerging market vaccine manufacturers. Our group is developing a two-pronged approach to advance recombinant protein–based vaccines to prevent COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 and other coronavirus infections

Living systematic review COVID-19

The Infectious Diseases Data Observatory (IDDO)
IDDO Newsletter
Since the COVID-19 outbreak was identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, a strong response from the research community has been evident as observed in the proliferation of independent clinical trials assessing diagnostic methods, therapeutic and prophylactic strategies. While there is no intervention for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 with proven clinical efficacy to date, tools to distil the current research landscape by intervention, level of evidence, and those studies likely powered to address future research questions is essential.


NOTE - Events may be postponed or cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Please check with event organizers to confirm events.

Steps to Protect Virtual Run/Walk
August 1 - August 19
Get active with The Task Force for Global Health as we come together for a virtual run/walk to support Black Lives Matter and the Clarkston Community Health Center.

ISNTD Connect GSA Series: Rethinking WASH for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis
August 6, 14:00 GMT, ISNTD Connect
In our upcoming ISNTD Connect GSA Series webinar, Yael Velleman (Director of Policy and Communications, SCI Foundation) will discuss "Rethinking WASH for the control and elimination of schistosomiasis".

Understanding COVID-19 Testing: Free Webinar by DDTD
August 12, 11:00 AM PDT, Webinar
Join us on Wednesday, August 12th at 11:00am PDT for a FREE Zoom webinar on all things COVID-19 testing. The webinar will cover the basics of COVID-19, including what the virus is, how it is made up, what type of testing exists, recommendations on the best types of tests for specific populations, and DDTD’s own efforts on developing COVID-19 antibody tests. Register today by filling out the form below and join us for this informative presentation on COVID-19 testing! Registration is completely free with a suggested donation to help support our efforts.

NTD NGO Network Annual Meeting - VIRTUAL
September 8-10, 2020
2020 will be an important year: celebrating the success and embracing the new NTD Roadmap from the World Health Organization. Please get your stories ready and join the celebration!

75th Session of the UN General Assembly - VIRTUAL
September 15-30, 2020
All 193 Member States of the Organization are represented in the General Assembly - one of the six main organs of the UN - to discuss and work together on a wide array of international issues covered by the Charter of the United Nations, such as development, peace and security, international law, etc. Every year in September, all the Members meet in this unique forum for the General Assembly session.

September 29 - October 1, 2020, Lomé, Togo
More details to follow.

World Sight Day
October 9, 2020
World Sight Day (WSD) is an annual day of awareness held on the second Thursday of October, to focus global attention on blindness and vision impairment. World Sight Day 2020 is on 9 October 2020.

11th IAPB General Assembly - POSTPONED
October 12-14, 2020, Singapore
The General Assembly will mark the end of the VISION 2020: The Right to Sight period. It will present a great opportunity to take stock, celebrate successes and make plans for the future. A key focus will be on the WHO’s World Report on Vision and its framework for the future. The event will have three co-chairs leading on three streams: “Excellence”, “Eye Health in the West Pacific” and “Sustainability”. 

Expo 2020 Dubai: Global Best Practice Programme
October 20 2020 - April 10, 2021
Expo 2020 Dubai’s platform to showcase projects that have provided tangible solutions to the world’s biggest challenges. It will highlight simple but effective initiatives, which localise the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and can be adapted, replicated, and scaled to achieve an enhanced global impact.

World Health Summit 
October 25-27, 2020, Berlin, Germany
The World Health Summit is one of the world’s leading strategic forums for global health. Held annually in Berlin, it brings together leaders from politics, science and medicine, the private sector, and civil society to set the agenda for a healthier future. 300 speakers and 2,500 participants from 100 countries take part.

6th World One Health Congress 
October 30 - November 3, 2020, Edinburgh, Scotland
The 6th World One Health Congress is the largest One Health event of the year, where experts and researchers from around the world present their latest scientific research.