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Research Raises New Questions on Schistosomiasis and HIV Co-Infection & Other NTD News

News roundup

This news roundup is a collection of headlines and other items on neglected tropical diseases, and does not reflect the work or the views of the Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center.

schisto

This confocal microscope image shows a small snail, removed from its shell, which is infected with schistosome parasites. The snail plays a key role in the life cycle of the parasite that causes schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that sickens hundreds of millions of people. The Phillip Newmark lab at the Morgridge Institute is seeking new avenues to fight the disease.
BO WANG/STANFORD UNIVERSITY

Lymphatic filariasis

Mozambique: Tete launches massive campaign against lymphatic filariasis

Club of Mozambique
Health authorities of the western Mozambican province of Tete on Monday launched a massive campaign for the treatment of lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis. The launching ceremony took place at the Castro Teófilo Primary School, in Tete, where the provincial governor, Paulo Auade, urged the population to heed the calls of the health authorities and rush immediately to the treatment centres. “Everyone is called to go to the treatment centres. Community leaders, religious leaders, parents and guardians should all spread the message which will allow us to reach our targets,”said the governor.

Tiny Togo Conquered Elephantiasis

Charu Sudan Kasturi
OZY
Togo’s achievement, formally endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO), is the culmination of almost two decades of smart interventions, say experts. The West African nation was among the first to take the WHO up on its challenge in the late 1990s to eliminate the disease, says Rachel Bronzan, a medical epidemiologist at global health care agency Health and Development International. “It’s a huge success and demonstrates Togo’s commitment to this kind of work,” says Bronzan. “There’s a lot other countries can learn from it.”

Integrated morbidity mapping of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis cases in 20 co-endemic districts of Ethiopia

Biruk Kebede et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
This study represents the first community-wide, integrated clinical case mapping of both [lymphatic filariasis, or] LF and podoconiosis in Ethiopia. It highlights the high number of cases, particularly of leg lymphoedema that could be attributed to either of these diseases. This key clinical information will assist and guide the allocation of resources to where they are needed most.

Comprehensive Assessment of a Hotspot with Persistent Bancroftian Filariasis in Coastal Sri Lanka

Ramakrishna U. Rao et al.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis campaign distributed five rounds of mass drug administration (MDA with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole) to some 10 million people in eight districts between 2002 and 2006. Sri Lanka was recognized by the WHO for having eliminated lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem in 2016. However, recent studies by our group documented pockets with persistent LF in coastal Sri Lanka, especially in Galle district. The present study was performed to reexamine an area previously identified as a potential hotspot for persistent LF.

Onchocerciasis

Basic research in fruit flies leads to potential drug for diseases afflicting millions

Tim Stephens
Medical Xpress
William Sullivan, a professor of molecular, cell, and developmental biology at UC Santa Cruz, has spent much of his career studying the basic biology of the cell cycle in the fruit fly Drosophila. To study the interactions of Wolbachia with its insect hosts, he created a stable cell line of Wolbachia-infected Drosophila cells which he could grow indefinitely in the laboratory. This cell line turned out to be an invaluable tool for researchers seeking new drugs to treat river blindness and related diseases.

Review on medicinal plants and natural compounds as anti-Onchocerca agents

Dieudonné Ndjonka, Boursou Djafsia and Eva Liebau
Parasitology Research
The approach using medicinal plants used in traditional medicine is a possible alternative method to cure onchocerciasis. . . Several plant groups of compounds were shown active against Onchocerca sp. [via in vivo acute toxicity assays and/or in vitro cytotoxicity tests] such as tannins, alkaloids, triterpenoids and essential oils. Nevertheless, none of the active compounds was subjected to clinical trial, to assessment of its diffusibility through nodular wall or its capability to induce genetic resistance of Onchocerca sp.

Schistosomiasis

Impact of schistosome infection on long-term HIV/AIDS outcomes

Soledad Colombre et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Our study demonstrates that people with schistosome infection at the time of HIV-seroconversion develop adverse HIV outcomes more slowly than those without. The findings are contrary to our original hypothesis. Our current longitudinal findings suggest complex interactions between HIV-1 and schistosome co-infections that may be modulated over time. We urge new immunological studies to investigate the long-term impact of schistosome infection on HIV-1 viral load and CD4 counts as well as related immunologic pathways.

Urogenital Schistosomiasis and the impact on sexual and reproductive health

Anouk Gouvras
BugBitten
Genital schistosomiasis is a dangerous consequence of schistosome infections that drastically decreases quality of life, causes much misery and pain, leads to pelvic inflammation, infertility and can increase the likelihood of contracting other dangerous diseases such as HIV. Researchers are working to define genital schistosomiasis in women and men, to develop practical diagnostic tests and to improve treatment platforms and outcomes.

A pilot study using wearable global positioning system data loggers to compare water contact levels: Schistosoma . . .

Grace Macklin, Michelle C Stanton, Louis Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté and J Russell Stothard
Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
As part of a pilot study, the whole community was treated with praziquantel, inclusive of pre-school-age children (PSAC) and their mothers. One year later, egg-patent infections were reassessed and water contact patterns of 12 pairs of PSAC and their mothers were measured with global positioning system (GPS) data loggers.

Schistosoma researchers ‘ah-ha’ moment

Outbreak News Today
The parasitic disease schistosomiasis is one of the developing world’s worst public health scourges, affecting hundreds of millions of people, yet only a single, limited treatment exists to combat the disease. Researchers at the Morgridge Institute for Research are searching for potential new targets by probing the cellular and developmental biology of its source, the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma. . . “Understanding how these stem cells drive the development of each life-cycle stage may ultimately help prevent disease transmission,” says senior author Phillip Newmark, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Morgridge investigator and professor of integrative biology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Geographical Clustering and Environmental Determinants of Schistosomiasis from 2007 to 2012 in Jianghan Plain, China

Yingnan Niu et al.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Few studies have evaluated changes in the spatial distribution of human schistosomiasis and the impact of and variations in factors that promote the transmission of schistosomiasis in Jianghan Plain. In the present study, we employed spatial and space–time scan statistics to analyze the clusters and number of people infected with schistosomiasis. Furthermore, the Geodetector software was used to assess the environmental risks to human schistosomiasis rates in Jianghan Plain from 2007 to 2012.

Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis

Extending the global worm index and its links to human development and child education

SuJin Kang, Ashish Damania, M. Farhan Majid and Peter J. Hotez
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Utilizing two different worm indices data available, our findings showed negative associations between helminthic neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and both human development and educational indicators for children globally. The negative links to [Human Development Index, or] HDI for all 191 nations globally extend previous information provided for the 25 largest nations and OIC countries, respectively, while our new findings—the negative associations with educational development, including school enrollment rate, mean years of schooling, and school persistence—generate a number of potentially interesting hypotheses for further testing.

Tanzania: Fighting Diseases Hindering Child Growth

Meddu Mulisa
All Africa
Kagera leaders and the general public have been urged to take a holistic approach in eliminating preventable diseases that hinder proper growth of children. People should also get correct information on strategies taken by the government in controlling the diseases. . . About 600,373 pupils in primary schools were expected to be administered with deworming tablets. The government will distribute Albendazole antiworm tablets for children aged between five years and 15 years free of cost.

Prevalence of Soil -Transmitted Helminth in Three Communities of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

D.A. Goodhead, A.P. Ugbomeh and H. Chuku
South Asian Journal of Parasitology
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of these soil transmitted helminth parasites in selected communities (Rumuewhor, Ubimini and Elibrada) of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. 300 soil samples were collected randomly from school fields, roadsides and around residential areas in the three communities from December 2016 to May 2017. . . The study has highlighted the public health implications for the people who live in the communities studied and has recommended the improvement of basic environmental and sanitary conditions of the populace and the need for health education programs.

Plasmodium and intestinal parasite perturbations of the infected host’s inflammatory responses: a systematic review

Aminata Colle Lo, Babacar Faye, Ben Adu Gyan and Linda Eva Amoah
Parasites & Vectors
Co-infection of malaria and intestinal parasites is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and causes severe disease especially among the poorest populations. It has been shown that an intestinal parasite (helminth), mixed intestinal helminth or Plasmodium parasite infection in a human induces a wide range of cytokine responses, including anti-inflammatory, pro-inflammatory as well as regulatory cytokines. Although immunological interactions have been suggested to occur during a concurrent infection of helminths and Plasmodium parasites, different conclusions have been drawn on the influence this co-infection has on cytokine production.

STH Coalition Action Group Meeting 2018 Report

STH Coalition Action Group
The [soil-transmitted helminthiasis, or] STH Coalition Action Group provides strategic direction and guides STH Coalition activities. The 2018 STH Coalition Action Group meeting was held in Atlanta, GA on May 8-9, 2018. The meeting addressed the need to monitor progress toward achievement of the 2020 global targets and shared preferred practices with a focus on monitoring and evaluation of STH programming.

Trachoma

Now in Sight: Success Against an Infection That Blinds

Donald McNeil Jr.
The New York Times
Quietly, in the shadow of fights against better-known diseases like Ebola, AIDS and malaria, the 20-year battle against trachoma is chalking up impressive victories. Those successes, experts say, show the wisdom of advocating and enforcing basic public health practices, rather than waiting for a miracle cure or a new vaccine. They are also a testament to the unheralded but steady generosity of Americans. Much of the progress was made through donations by an American drug company, American foundations and American taxpayers.

Because of Her, We Can! - Indigenous women in eye health

Vision 2020 Australia
To mark NAIDOC Week 2018 and this year's theme 'Because of Her, We Can!', Vision 2020 Australia is celebrating the roles and achievements of some of the incredible Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women working in the eye health sector. . . Simone is a Yankunytjatjara woman from the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands in remote South Australia. Simone works with Indigenous communities and health professionals across Australia to inform a model of best practice to work towards the elimination of trachoma in South Australia, and is passionate about improving health outcomes for Indigenous communities.

Improving the Eye Health of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander People

Yaru Foundation
Yaru Water is proud to announce a partnership with The Fred Hollows Foundation. During this financial year we will be looking to raise $50,000 ($150,000 over three years) to work towards a world in which no person is needlessly blind and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people exercise their right to good health. . . With almost 70% of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in regional, remote, and very remote regions, access to high quality and culturally-appropriate health care is an essential step in closing this health gap.

[AUDIO] The friendship of two 'miracle workers': Fred Hollows and Sanduk Ruit

Australian Broadcasting Company
Dr Sanduk Ruit was working as an eye surgeon in his home country of Nepal long before he met Fred Hollows. But Ruit says it was Hollows who gave him the audacity to pursue his lifelong dream, to completely eradicate preventable blindness from around the world. Likewise, Hollows said it was Ruit who inspired him to move his work from the Australian stage to the global stage.

[VIDEO] Traveling 9,000 miles to help end trachoma

Pfizer
Pfizer is proud to contribute to trachoma elimination efforts through the donation of an antibiotic used to treat trachoma, and recently extended its donation until 2025, should it be needed. Pfizer donates the antibiotic to the International Trachoma Initiative (ITI), a program of the Taskforce for Global Health, an independent not-for-profit organization. . . Watch the video below to learn more about the journey of our antibiotic used to help eliminate trachoma, and the global network of people that makes it all possible.

Cross-cutting

[VIDEO] Goylette Chami (University of Cambridge): Community drug distribution & access to medicines

The International Society for Neglected Tropical Diseases
YouTube
At ISNTD d³ 2018, Dr. Goylette Chami from the University of Cambridge, speaks about mass drug administration for tropical diseases and research showing the inequity within recipient communities and implications on access to medicines on the ground.

At Heart, Global Health Draws on Compassion, Solidarity and Justice

David Addiss
Journal of the Catholic Health Association of the United States
The immensity of human suffering throughout history is unfathomable. For most of our history, our awareness of suffering was limited to those in our own community. But we now live in an age of globalization, bombarded by 24-hour news and images of suffering from around the world. Suffering that used to be hidden now is revealed. With that awareness comes a desire and a responsibility to respond. The field of global health represents one such response. Global health emerged during the past three decades, fueled by a recognition that, as humans, our health is deeply interconnected.

BSI quoted in House of Lords debate on Neglected Tropical Diseases

British Society for Immunology
As part of the debate, Baroness Shaista Sheehan, the Liberal Democrats Lords Spokesperson for International Development, quoted the [British Society for Immunology, or] BSI’s recent policy briefing on [neglected tropical diseases, or] NTDs in saying that although there had been significant progress with some diseases, “the BSI quite rightly draws our attention to the importance of immunological research in developing new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics for NTDs”. . . She also echoed the BSI’s opinion that if collaborative efforts between industry and research, such as the UK Vaccine Network, were replicated for NTDs, this would speed up the development of diagnostics and vaccines for these diseases.

Revisiting the concept of Innovative Developing Countries (IDCs) for its relevance to health innovation and NTD . . .

Alexandre Guimarães Vasconcellos, Bruna de Paula Fonseca e Fonseca and Carlos Medicis Morel
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Countries have traditionally been split into two major groups: developed or industrialized (“the North”) and developing or underdeveloped (“the South”). Several authors and organizations have challenged this classification to recognize countries that have reached an intermediate stage of social and economic development. As proposed by Morel and collaborators in 2005, the concept of Innovative Developing Countries (IDCs) defines a group of nations with impactful scientific programs. Here, IDCs are reexamined by a variety of metrics to highlight their role in health innovation through research and development (R&D) programs on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that also positively impact epidemic preparedness.

The Human Capital Gap

Jim Yong Kim
Foreign Affairs
Governments in pursuit of economic growth love to invest in physical capital—new roads, beautiful bridges, gleaming airports, and other infrastructure. But they are typically far less interested in investing in human capital, which is the sum total of a population’s health, skills, knowledge, experience, and habits. That’s a mistake, because neglecting investments in human capital can dramatically weaken a country’s competitiveness in a rapidly changing world, one in which economies need ever-increasing amounts of talent to sustain growth.

Equity in the gender equality movement in global health

Catherine M Jones et al.
The Lancet
In recent years, social media campaigns aiming to showcase women working at the forefront of global health have resulted in lists like 300 Women Leaders in Global Health. This movement inspired a global organisation called Women in Global Health (WGH) that promotes gender equality in global health leadership . . . However, an equity challenge remains embedded within this movement to increase the visibility and recognition of women leaders and experts in global health. WGH's analysis of the organisational locations of 300 women leaders collected through an open nominations process on Twitter shows considerable regional disparities.

Eradication genomics—lessons for parasite control

James A. Cotton, Matthew Berriman, Love Dalén and Ian Barnes
Science
Large-scale programs are seeking to control or eliminate infectious diseases with the greatest impact on global health. Many of these efforts target the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that disproportionately affect the lives of the poor. Often the aim is to eradicate the causative pathogens . . . Here, we discuss the value of genomic approaches to support disease eradication efforts, particularly by analogy with how conservation genomics is supporting efforts to prevent extinctions.

The detection, identification and monitoring of infectious diseases in Africa

Gerald Misinzo
Open Access Government
The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance – Africa Center of Excellence for Infectious Diseases of Humans and Animals in Southern and Eastern Africa (SACIDS – ACE), is a One Health partnership of medical and veterinary institutions. The core partnership of the centre is Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) and the Tanzania National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR).

Other

Lessons from the field in Bihar, India

Courtenay Dusenbury
Global Partnership for Zero Leprosy
The most important lesson I have learned since becoming the Secretariat Director is that people working to prevent, detect and treat leprosy and its complications, and those affected by the disease, are a very close-knit, unique and special group. Everyone working in or affected by leprosy shares several powerful traits: humility, compassion and a genuine sense of purpose. This community wants to end the disease, and its complications, in our lifetime.

Diagnosis and impact of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients in Nepal after completion of multidrug therapy

Han-Song Toh et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Neuropathic pain (NP) can occur as a chronic complication of leprosy neuropathy. NP epidemiology and its impact on patients have not been well documented. This study investigates NP prevalence and impact in the years after patients are declared “released from treatment” (RFT) following multidrug therapy (MDT) completion.

Non-randomized controlled trial of the long-term efficacy of an Ecohealth intervention against Chagas disease in Yucatan, Mexico

Etienne Waleckx et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Intrusive triatomine bugs such as Triatoma dimidiata in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, are responsible for the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to humans, which can lead to Chagas disease. The control of these bugs is a challenge as insecticide spraying is poorly effective, and alternative strategies need to be developed for a sustainable control. We tested a novel Ecohealth approach, based on window insect screens manufacture and installation through community participation to reduce the presence of bugs inside houses.

First Report of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Salivary Gland of Bats from the Peruvian Amazon

Fredy E. Villena et al.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
In the Americas, 8 million people are infected with Chagas disease, and an additional 90 million people are at risk for infection. Little is known about the role bats play in the sylvatic transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease. Here, we captured bats in the villages of Palmiche, Pachacutec, Nuevo San Martin, and Mayuriaga located in the Datem del Marañon Province in Loreto, Peru. Venous blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture or from the upper extremities, and trypanosomatids were identified by microscopy and molecularly.

Shedding Light on NTDs: Guinea Worm Disease

Lauren Goodwin
The Disease Daily
Historically referred to as “little dragons”, this week’s NTD is Guinea worm disease. Guinea worm is caused by a parasitic worm that causes severe pain and blisters in those it infects. It is a disease that has been around for as long as time. Mummies from ancient Egypt have been discovered to carry the worms and in the Book of Numbers, the “fiery serpents” infecting the Israelites is believed to have been Guinea worms.

Amino acid permease 3 (aap3) coding sequence as a target for Leishmania identification and diagnosis of leishmaniases . . .

Karl Erik Müller et al.
Parasites & Vectors
The leishmaniases comprise a spectrum of clinical manifestations caused by different species of Leishmania. Identification of species is important for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up management. However, there is no gold standard for species identification. High resolution melting analysis (HRM) offers a possibility to differentiate Leishmania species without the need for processing of the PCR-product. The amino acid permease 3 (aap3) gene is an exclusive target for trypanosomatids and is conserved among Leishmania spp., thus it can be a valuable target for an HRM assay for diagnosis of the leishmaniases.

Snakebite envenomation in the Caribbean: The role of medical and scientific cooperation

Dabor Resiere, Hossein Mehdaoui and José Gutiérrez
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Venomous snakes live in Aruba, Belize, Guyana, French Guyana, Martinique, Suriname, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. However, the epidemiology of snakebites in the Caribbean is largely unknown, and no systematic regional register of this disease exists.

New study finds 93 million people vulnerable to death from snakebites

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington
A new scientific study finds 93 million people live in remote areas with venomous snakes and, if bitten, face a greater likelihood of dying than those in urban settings because of poor access to anti-venom medications. “One’s vulnerability to snakebites represents a nexus of ecological contexts and public health weaknesses,” said Dr. David Pigott, one of the study’s authors and assistant professor at IHME. “Understanding where venomous snakes live and people’s proximity to effective treatments are the two most important steps toward reducing deaths. Our analysis identifies communities in greatest need.”

Where Shoes Are A Luxury, A Nightmarish Disease May Be Lurking

Tom Gardner
Huffington Post
The district of Dawro in southern Ethiopia is farming country, its fertile soils brimming with life. On steep hills, farmers eke out a living from corn and teff, yam and banana. When the thin air thickens with mist and rain, the copper-colored ground turns to mud. But this fecund earth, a blessing for Dawro’s farmers, can also be a curse. Something in the soil triggers a disfiguring disease that may hobble even the hardiest folk.

Variation in competence for ZIKV transmission by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Mexico

Selene M. Garcia-Luna et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Zika Virus (ZIKV) is a new addition to the arboviruses circulating in the New World, with more than 1 million cases since its introduction in 2015. A growing number of studies have reported vector competence (VC) of Aedes mosquitoes from several areas of the world for ZIKV transmission. Some studies have used New World mosquitoes from disparate regions and concluded that these have a variable but relatively low competence for the Asian lineage of ZIKV.

Mathematical analysis to prioritise strategies for malaria elimination

Nakul Chitnis et al.
Journal of Theoretical Biology
Since resources are limited, prioritization of countries or areas for elimination is often necessary. However, this prioritization is frequently conducted in an ad hoc manner. Lower transmission areas are usually targeted for elimination first, but for some areas this necessitates long and potentially expensive surveillance programs while transmission is eliminated from neighboring higher transmission areas. We use a mathematical model to compare the implications of prioritisation choices in reducing overall burden and costs.

Fewer malaria nets, lower costs, more protection

Stephanie Desmon
Johns Hopkins University Hub
Insecticide-treated bed nets—a crucial part of malaria protection throughout sub-Saharan Africa and regions of Asia—have long been distributed to people who need them through mass campaigns conducted every three years. But what if there were a more effective way to cover more people with bed nets designed to protect them from being bitten by malaria-infected mosquitoes? Better yet, what if those nets could be distributed at a lower cost and with fewer of the logistical headaches associated with mass campaigns?

Synergy in the adulticidal efficacy of essential oils for the improvement of permethrin toxicity against Aedes aegypti L.

Arpaporn Chansang et al.
Parasites & Vectors
In a previous screening program for mosquitocides from local edible plants in Thailand, essential oils (EOs) of Cyperus rotundus, Alpinia galanga and Cinnamomum verum, were found to possess promising adulticidal activity against Aedes aegypti. With the aim of reducing usage of conventional insecticides and improving the management of resistant mosquito populations, this study was designed to determine the potential synergism in the adulticidal efficacy of EOs on permethrin toxicity against Ae. aegypti, both pyrethroid-resistant and -susceptible strains.

Letter: The Fight Against Malaria

Chris Collins
The New York Times
Regarding [the July 10 article] “In a Rare Success, Paraguay Conquers Malaria”: The world is at a tipping point in the fight against malaria. This moment is an opportunity to push progress forward rather than risk the dangers of backsliding. Take India as a cautionary tale: When malaria funding was withdrawn in the mid-1960s, the resulting shortage of supplies to spray against mosquitoes led to a resurgence of malaria cases. Sustained funding, coupled with advances in technology and research, provide opportunities to end malaria for good.

NIH researchers identify sequence leading to release of malaria parasites from red blood cells

Robert Bock and Meredith Daly
National Institutes of Health
The vacuole, a compartment inside human red blood cells in which malaria parasites reproduce and develop, takes on a distinct spherical shape just minutes before its membrane ruptures, leading to the release of parasites into the blood stream, according to researchers at the National Institutes of Health and other institutions. The researchers, working with red blood cells from healthy donors, were able to chemically block the sequence of events leading to this rounding of the vacuole. They note that targeting this sequence could inform new treatment strategies against Plasmodium falciparum, the species of malaria parasite that causes the most deaths worldwide and, in several areas, has become drug-resistant.

Target for novel malaria vaccine identified

Science News
A Yale-led team of researchers have created a vaccine that protects against malaria infection in mouse models, paving the way for the development of a human vaccine that works by targeting the specific protein that parasites use to evade the immune system.

Modelling population-level impact to inform target product profiles for childhood malaria vaccines

Alexandra B. Hogan et al.
BMC Medicine
This study provides insight into the most important characteristics of a malaria vaccine for at-risk groups and shows how distinct vaccine properties translate to public health outcomes. These findings may be used to prioritise target product profile elements for second-generation childhood malaria vaccines.

Wolbachia mosquitoes released in Fiji to curb dengue

Xinhua
Fiji has identified the hot spots for dengue fever where officials of the World Mosquito Program (WMP) will release the Wolbachia mosquitoes on Monday to curb the spread of dengue, Zika and chikungunya diseases. Wolbachia is a natural and safe bacteria that reduce the ability of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to transmit viruses between people. The bacteria-carrying mosquitoes breed with the wild Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the area, passing Wolbachia to their offspring.

Upcoming Events 

The WHO Training Package on Morbidity Management and Disability Prevention for Lymphatic Filariasis
July 26,  Webinar
Presentations will include a description of the global lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation and the LF elimination goals, a description of the training package and its content, as well as field experiences using the LF MMDP training package. This will be followed by a Q&A session.

Tropical Medicine Cases and Neurocysticercosis Guidelines
August 8,  Webinar
What will be covered? A mix of interesting tropical medicine cases as well as one hour on the newly released IDSA and ASTMH co-authored neurocysticercosis guidelines, interspersed with relevant cases. Presenters: Leading tropical medicine experts Susan McLellan, MD, MPH, FIDSA, FASTMH, University of Texas Medical Branch, and Christina Coyle, MD, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, will lead the discussion. Dr. Coyle is a co-author of the neurocysticercosis guidelines.

5th International Conference on Neglected Tropical & Infectious Diseases
August 29-30,  Boston, Massachussetts
Theme: Uniting all to overcome and fight against NTD's & infectious diseases for improved health protection.

78th FIP World Congress of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
September 2-6,  Glasgow, United Kingdom
The 2018 FIP congress in Glasgow, Scotland, invites pharmacy practitioners and pharmaceutical scientists from around the world to come together to consider ways of extending the role of pharmacists so that they play a full part in ensuring patients, and health systems, achieve full benefit from the medicines people take.

2018 ROP Africa Symposium
September 3-4,  Cape Town, South Africa
The International Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Council and The Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology at The Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, Cape Town are proud to announce the 2018 ROP Africa Symposium.

IAPB Council of Members Meeting
September 15-16,  Hyderabad, India
The 2018 International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) Council of Members will be held in Hyderabad and our local host will be L.V. Prasad Eye Institute who are celebrating the 20th anniversary of ICARE (International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care). We are expecting 400 delegates between the 15-16 September to celebrate the progress that has been made in India and across the South East Asia Region as well as looking ahead at the challenges that eye health faces not just in the region but across the globe.

RSTMH Annual Meeting 2018
September 19-20,  London, UK
The theme of [The Royal Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, or] RSTMH’s 2018 two-day Annual Meeting is intersections of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the Sustainable Development Goals. We will bring together voices from different sectors, locations and disease areas to showcase the lesser-known problems caused by intersections, and their impact.

First International Podoconiosis Conference
September 23, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
The theme for this is ‘Research to Implementation: A Call for Global Action’. With this invitation to register, we are also calling for abstracts from all those involved in podoconiosis research and implementation. In order to stimulate high levels of participation, the conference programme will include two sessions of research presentations, one of implementation presentations, and a poster display area. Abstracts for each of these will be selected by competitive process, and prizes will be awarded for the best research and the best implementation presentations. Travel awards will be available for a limited number of selected abstracts.

Access Challenge Universal Health Forum
September 24, New York, New York
The Universal Health Forum will celebrate the drive towards Universal Health Access in Africa. There will be high-level forums on maternal health, child health and malaria, NTDs and NCDs. There will also be an exhibition hall showcasing new technology, diagnostics, and treatments, and a dinner and awards ceremony celebrating leaders from across Africa.

NNN 2018 
September 24-26, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
We are delighted to announce the dates for the 9th NNN annual conference, subject to venue availability.

10th Euro-Global Conference on Infectious Diseases
September 27-29, Rome, Italy
Theme: Advancing in science and improving care to prevent infectious diseases.

International Conference on Migration Health
October 1-3, Rome, Italy
Hosted by the international Society of Travel Medicine.

5th Global Symposium on Health Systems Research
October 8-12,  Liverpool, United Kingdom
Theme: Advancing health systems for all in the SDG area.

World Sight Day
October 11, 2018
World Sight Day (WSD) is an annual day of awareness held on the second Thursday of October, to focus global attention on blindness and vision impairment. This year, the "Call to Action" for World Sight Day is "Eye Care Everywhere."

World Health Summit
October 14-16, Berlin, Germany
Central topics for this year's meeting will include pandemic preparedness, sustainable development goals, and access to essential medicines.

Neglected Tropical Diseases Congress: The Future Challenges
October 15-17, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
The conference includes prompt presentations, special sessions, workshops, symposium, oral talks, poster presentations and exhibitions. We expect your kind presence at the conference which will discuss the recent emerging diseases, outbreaks, categories, epidemiology, diagnosis, therapeutics etc.

Tropical Dermatology
October 27 - 28, New Orleans, Louisiana
This 1.5-day course offers an overview of Tropical Dermatology, an essential component of tropical medicine. The course is designed for clinicians who are already familiar with clinical tropical medicine, either from working in tropical environments or from seeing patients returning from the tropics. Saturday’s session is devoted to cutaneous leishmaniais (the latest in the rapidly changing epidemiology, diagnosis and management). Skin conditions will be reviewed from the standpoint of diagnosing and treating individual patients – and from managing skin diseases on a population basis. 

Big Data and Genomics – A Practical Workshop on Sequence Analysis in Parasitology
October 28, New Orleans, Louisiana
This practical, hands-on workshop will introduce participants to publicly available sequence analysis tools. Using parasite genome and/or RNAseq data obtained from actual field or laboratory experiments, participants will learn analytical methods and workflows used to extract meaningful biological, evolutionary and/or epidemiological insights. Through live exercises led by experts in the field, participants will learn how to retrieve data from sequence repositories, run them through preconfigured or customized workflows, and visualize and explore the data using web-based tools.

The Global Health Impact of Urbanization and Megacities – Trends, Risk Management and Research Needs
October 28, New Orleans, Louisiana
This course will explore the changing worldwide landscape and global health risks with the exponential increase in urban population growth.  Beyond vector-borne diseases, the lack of barriers between animals, vectors, the environment and water supply increases the risk of other diseases such as leptospirosis, Ebola and plague. We urgently need to be prepared for new microbial transmission pathways in the urban environment that affect human health. 

67th Annual ASTMH Meeting 
October 28 - November 1, New Orleans, Louisiana
The ASTMH Annual Meeting draws tropical medicine and global health professionals representing academia, government, non-profits, philanthropy, NGOs, industry, military and private practice. The meeting is designed for researchers, professors, government and public health officials, military personnel, travel clinic physicians, practicing physicians in tropical medicine, students and all health care providers working in the fields of tropical medicine, hygiene and global health. 

7th Global Scabies Control Meeting
October 28, New Orleans, Louisiana
We are pleased to announce the date for the 7th Global Scabies Control meeting. The meeting will be held on Sunday 28th October in New Orleans, LA, USA. Please mark this in your diaries now! Further information and registration details will follow in coming months. 

1st International Caparica Congress on Leishmaniasis
October 29-31, Caparica, Portugal
This conference intends to gather researchers working in areas related to Leishmaniasis, from treatment to prevention. In fact, as leishmaniasis is slowly but constantly, increasing worldwide, this conference is addressed to show the latest research trends in this area. The idea is to push forward the battle against this persistent disease. 

Women Leaders in Global Health London 2018
November 8-9, London, United Kingdom
Celebrating women in global health leadership and cultivating the next generation of women leaders. 

APHA 2018 Annual Meeting and Expo
November 10-14, San Diego, California
Theme: "Creating the Healthiest Nation: Health Equity Now."  

Vector-Borne Diseases in the UK - Biennial Meeting, 2018
December 3-4, Norwich, United Kingdom
This meeting will be the fourth we have held on this topic, with previous meetings in 2012, 2014 and 2016, and like before we will bring together members of the major UK research groups who have an interest in vectors or vector-borne diseases which could be a threat to the UK; groups with wider but related areas of interest; members of key UK Government Departments and their Agencies; and representatives of European organisations with an interest in this topic. 

Women Deliver 2019 Conference 
June 3-6, 2019, Vancouver, Canada
The Women Deliver 2019 Conference – the world’s largest gathering on the health, rights, and wellbeing of women and girls – will serve as a fueling station for advocates working to achieve a more gender equal world. In the summer of 2019, over 6,000 world leaders, influencers, advocates, academics, activists, and journalists will flock to Vancouver with dreams of accelerating progress girls and women everywhere.