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Partners Commemorate International Women's Day, STH Linked to Ear Infections & Other NTD News

News roundup

This news roundup is a collection of headlines and other items on neglected tropical diseases, and does not reflect the work or the views of the Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center. 


 Female community health workers like Apsara are making strides in the global fight against NTDs.


Lymphatic filariasis

Living with Elephantiasis: Not disabled enough?

Lavanya Menon
The New Indian Express
According to a research conducted in 2005, India is home to 42 per cent of the world’s [lymphatic filariasis, or] LF affected persons. Though the disease can lead to chronic deformities, those affected are not allowed the rights afforded under the Disabilities Act 2016. “What takes a normal person a few seconds is a gruelling ordeal that may take up to half an hour for people like me, yet the government refuses to categorize us as disabled or give us disability pension,” says one LF patient.

Community perspectives on persistent transmission of LF in three hotspot districts in Ghana after 15 rounds of MDA

Collins S. K. Ahorlu, Erik Koka, Susan Adu-Amankwah, Joseph Otchere and Dziedzom Komi de Souza
BMC Public Health
This study takes into account community members’ perspectives on [mass drug administration, or] MDA after over 15 years of implementation in three districts in Ghana. Findings will inform strategies to mobilize community members to participate fully in MDA to enhance the disease elimination process.


Correspondence: Treating Onchocerciasis in Regions in Which Loa loa Is Endemic

Emily L. Woolnough et al. and Joseph Kamgno et al.
New England Journal of Medicine
In this letter to the editor, the authors question Dr. Kamgno's decision to calculate the percentage of total and specific averse events. In response, Dr. Kamgno and his associates Dr. Pion and Dr. Boussinesq explained that their approach of the test-and-not-treat strategy was in fact intentional, and referenced the multivariate analysis in their paper as a source for the type of information described by Woolnough et al.


The menace of schistosomiasis on a Nigerian community (Part I)

Adie Vanessa Offiong
Daily Trust [Nigeria]
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, which, according to the World Health Organisation, kills an estimated 280,000 people in Africa yearly. This report looks at its devastating impact on a community in Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory (FCT).

Diagnostic study on an immunochromatographic rapid test for schistosomiasis: serum vs. blood spot from fingerprick

Dora Buonfrate et al.
BMJ Open
This study evaluated sensitivity of immunochromatographic rapid test (ICT; Schistosoma ICT IgG, LDBIO Diagnostics) using serum and blood spots from a fingerprick. To date, the test has been validated for use on serum only, but in the absence of lab equipment, blood drop from fingerprick could be a useful option. Unfortunately, the performance of the two methods differed too much to support the use of fingerprick test. The researchers concluded that further evaluation, including more diagnostic assays for schistosomiasis, is required to clarify the findings of this study.

Paediatric schistosomiasis: What we know and what we need to know

Derick N. M. Osakunor, Mark E. J. Woolhouse and Francisca Mutapi
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Research and control strategies directed at preschool-aged children (PSAC), i.e., ≤5 years old, have lagged behind those in older children and adults. With the recent WHO revision of the schistosomiasis treatment guidelines to include PSAC, and the recognition of gaps in our current knowledge on the disease and its treatment in this age group, there is now a concerted effort to address these shortcomings. The authors of this study highlight risk factors, immune mechanisms, pathology, and optimal timing for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of paediatric schistosomiasis; and discuss the tools required for treating schistosomiasis in PSAC and strategies for accessing them for treatment.

Comparative study between direct microscopy and indirect haemagglutination methods used in diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis

Mohamed Alzubair Abdalla, Musab Hussin Mohamed, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed and Elamin Abdelkareem Elamin
MOJ Immunology
To date, there has been no clear comparison between direct microscopy and indirect haemagglutination methods applied to diagnose urinary schistosomiasis. In this study, both techniques were tested in Um usher village in Khartoum state, Sudan. Both techniques showed high degree of sensitivity and specificity in area endemic with urinary schistosomiasis, but the authors recommend further studies involving more participants and using more diagnostic methods in areas with variant endemicity of urinary schistosomiasis.

Mansonic Schistosomiasis in the Brazilian Southeast: Spatial Analysis in Minas Gerais

Jose de Paula Silva, Salvador Boccaletti Ramos and Monica Andrade
International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health
A paradigm change in the fight against schistosomiasis is needed, in which two factors could be characterized here. On the one hand, clusters can be identified, as schistosomiasis does not happen at random, but is contained in environments that somehow favor its occurrence. On the other hand, environmental factors like altitude and sewage disposal in rivers are related to these clusters.

Shell morphology of two closely related bulinid snails intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in Nigeria

Opeyemi Gbenga Oso and Alexander Bababunmi Odaibo
African Journal of Biotechnology
The shell shape and structure of radula teeth of bulinids are often specific to a species or genus, and are widely used for gastropod species identification. Shell characters such as the spire height, and width of B. globosus have been widely reported from different schistosome endemic areas of Nigeria, however B. jousseaumei was only recently reported in Nigeria. The significant difference observed in all the shell characters (shell height, width, aperture length and aperture width) between B. globosus and B. jousseaumei showed that all these shell characteristics can be used to differentiate these species.

Diagnostic performance of Mini Parasep® vs Kato-Katz and McMaster for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections

Shimeles Adugna et al.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
In this cross-sectional study, the authors compared the performance of Mini Parasep® solvent-free (SF) faecal parasite concentrator, Kato-Katz thick smear and McMaster techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections among children in Wosha Soyama Primary School, Ethiopia. The Mini Parasep® SF faecal parasite concentrator technique showed better performance than either of the other techniques for the detection of intestinal helminth infections in stool samples, particularly for S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides and H. nana, and can therefore be used as a suitable faecal examination method for surveillance and monitoring of preventative chemotheray of schistosomiasis.

Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis

Helminthiasis and chronic suppurative otitis media in Ijoun Community in Ogun State, Nigeria

Z. A. Abdullahi, O. A. Morenikeji, A. A. Adeyemo and V. O. Ogunleye
Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology
This study, carried out in a rural community in Ogun state Nigeria, aims to determine the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths, bacteria causing Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM), and their coinfection among school-aged participants. . . This study showed the presence of otitis media in the study area, and that helminthiasis might have an effect on its presentation. Efforts to control CSOM in the study site may need to consider the inclusion of mass deworming.

Effect of an integrated intervention package on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections in Côte d’Ivoire

Eveline Hürlimann et al.
Parasites & Vectors
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an integrated package of interventions, consisting of preventive chemotherapy, community-led total sanitation (CLTS) and health education, on the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections and on participants’ knowledge, attitude, practice and beliefs (KAPB) towards these diseases including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). . . An integrated package of interventions consisting of preventive chemotherapy, health education and CLTS reduces the prevalence of helminth and intestinal protozoa infection. Additional studies in other social-ecological settings are warranted to confirm our findings.

Diagnostic tools for soil-transmitted helminths control and elimination programs: A pathway for diagnostic product development

Mark D. Lim et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
As the STH community approaches the 75% coverage target for preschool- and school-aged children, there is increasing interest in exploring post-2020 goals that transition from simply monitoring program coverage to strengthened monitoring of a program’s impact on transmission of infection and determining whether enhanced[mass drug administration, or] MDA can break STH transmission with minimal risk of recrudescence. This report shares a user-centered framework developed by a diverse group of key opinion leaders convened over the past year by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to define circumstances in which population-level diagnostic data could guide an STH program manager’s decision to transition a program to the next phase.

Competing for blood: the ecology of parasite resource competition in human malaria–helminth co-infections

Sarah A. Budischak et al.
Ecology Letters
We analysed infection density (i.e.the concentration of parasites in infected hosts), from a 2-year deworming study of over 4000 human subjects. . . Our ecological, resource-based perspective sheds new light into decades of conflicting outcomes of malaria–helminth co-infection studies with significant health and transmission consequences. Beyond blood, investigating within-human resource competition may bring new insights for improving human health.


Former Bishop of London praises Uganda’s progress in fighting trachoma

The Right Rev Richard Chartres, former Bishop of London, has congratulated Uganda on its progress to eliminate blinding trachoma following his recent visit to the Iganga district in the east of the country. . . Lord Chartres said: “What has been achieved by the partners involved in the Trust’s Trachoma Initiative in just four years is quite remarkable. I have been struck by both the dedication and determination of the individuals I have met in Kiringa village, who are proof of what can be achieved when people, particularly those most affected by trachoma, come together to fight disease.”

Prevalence of trachoma in the Kayes region of Mali eight years after stopping mass drug administration

Lamine Traoré et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
In the Kayes region in southwest Mali, the districts of Kayes, Kéniéba, Nioro and Yélimané stopped antibiotic treatment in 2006 after three rounds of mass drug administration (MDA). . . Eight years after stopping [mass drug administration, or] MDA and intensifying trichiasis surgery outreach campaigns, all four districts reached the [trachomatous inflammation-follicular, or] TF elimination threshold of <5% and three of four districts reached the [trachomatous trichiasis, or] TT elimination threshold of <0.1%.

It’s Time to Take Togo Off the WHO Trachoma List

END in Africa
Togo is unusual in that although the country never needed to conduct treatment for trachoma (because surveys of the trachoma situation in 2006, 2009, and 2011 had shown that trachomatous inflammation-follicular prevalence in children 1–9 years was below 5% in every district), the country is still on the WHO’s list of trachoma-endemic countries. . . To help Togo remedy its trachoma situation, the END in Africa project has supported interventions to reduce trachomatous trichiasis [or TT] prevalence to below 0.2% and subsequent studies to demonstrate that TT prevalence is now below the under -0.2% threshold.

Analysis of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in West African communities identifies genomic markers for disease severity

A. R. Last et al.
Genome Medicine
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) strain-specific differences in clinical trachoma suggest that genetic polymorphisms in Ct may contribute to the observed variability in severity of clinical disease. This study demonstrates the extent of genomic diversity within a naturally circulating population of ocular Ct and is the first to describe novel genomic associations with disease severity. These findings direct investigation of host-pathogen interactions that may be important in ocular Ct pathogenesis and disease transmission.

[VIDEO] Progress for gender parity is tied to eliminating trachoma

International Trachoma Initiative
Girija Sankar, assistant director of programs and communications at the International Trachoma Initiative, tells us why eliminating trachoma is important to pressing progress on gender parity.


Why Gender Equality and the End of Neglected Tropical Diseases Go Hand-in-Hand

Katey Owen
Being born a girl is enough to increase exposure to these devastating conditions. NTDs also pose different, dangerous physical health risks for girls and women, including for their reproductive health. No girl or woman should endure this fate. By embracing links between NTDs and gender equality, we can help ensure girls and women in the world’s most neglected communities have ownership of their health, rights and dignity.

Women, the driving force behind progress in the fight against NTDs

Katie Crowley and Scott McPherson
Frontline Health Workers Coalition
Women have higher infection rates of NTDs, are more likely to suffer from trichiasis, the blinding stage of trachoma, more likely to develop life-threatening anemia as a result of worm infections, and more likely to face greater stigma from resulting disabilities. NTD infections can also prevent women from working, impacting themselves and their families economically. . . But it’s in the stories of women working to eliminate these diseases that we often find ourselves most astonished.

Neglected Tropical Disease Control – The Case for Adaptive, Location-specific Solutions

Mark Booth and Archie Clements
Trends in Parasitology
Current interventions against [neglected tropical diseases, or] NTDs are technical and based on historic evidence. The world is experiencing a period of rapid environmental and social change. Adaptive solutions will require more evidence to mitigate or adapt to change. Current calls for investment do not include consideration of future uncertainty. We call for more investment in field-data collection, adaptive modelling, and building adaptive decision-support tools.

Strategies to improve treatment coverage in community-based public health programs: A systematic review of the literature

Katrina V. Deardorff, Arianna Rubin Means, Kristjana H. Ásbjörnsdóttir and Judd Walson
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate strategies for achieving high treatment coverage in public health service distribution programs. The authors identified nine different strategies used to increase coverage of distribution programs. Of these nine strategies, community-directed distribution was associated with the largest increase in treatment coverage, followed closely by incentivizing distributors. These findings have important implications for governments, implementers, and funders who aim to provide health services at scale.

How poverty and disease is impacting human rights in the American South

Catherine Coleman Flowers and Peter Hotez
The Hill
Today few people are aware that we have as many as 19.4 million Americans who live at one-half the US poverty level and by some accounts more than a million U.S. families living below the World Bank poverty figure of $1.90 per day and live in such conditions found across the developing world where neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) flourish. the authors use Lowndes County in rural Alabama as an example community from the so-called "Black Belt" region of the US where parasitic infections like hookworm are prevalent.

Speak Up Africa New York Announces New Name: The Access Challenge and New Policy Campaign. . .

Jill Blaustein
Access Challenge
Speak Up Africa New York, a leading not-for-profit advocacy organization focused on universal access to healthcare and education for the world’s most vulnerable families, today announced its organization’s new name, The Access Challenge, and its first initiative, One By One: Target 2030. . . One By One: Target 2030 will promote universal health access in Africa, focusing first on immunizations, maternal health and Neglected Tropical Diseases, ensuring that even the poorest families have access to critical health interventions.


The Global State of Gender

Adina Trunk
Gender equality is undoubtedly a corner stone of democracy and a prerequisite for sustainable development, as defined by the UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) #5. But how should one assess, the successes and obstacles on achieving gender equality today? . . . Both men and women should take International Women’s Day as a moment to reflect on the global state of gender, the gains that have been made, and the challenges that remain. However, honouring the achievements gives hope to those advocating for change, showing the strengths of past women’s movements and battles.

An outbreak of Leishmania major from an endemic to a non-endemic region posed a public health threat in Iraq from 2014-2017

Mariwan M. M. Al-Bajalan et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Before 2003, there was very little migration from south and central Iraq to the northern territories. However, changing political climate throughout the country over the past 15 years has led to increased interactions between northern and southern Iraqis. One consequence has been the introduction of new strain of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Iraq. This area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.

The Task Force Joins Global Effort to Eliminate One of Humanity’s Oldest and Most Stigmatizing Diseases

The Task Force for Global Health
The Task Force for Global Health has been chosen as the secretariat or hub for a new partnership to eliminate leprosy, a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that burdens more than an estimated 200,000 people each year. As secretariat for the Zero Leprosy partnership, The Task Force will support the development of an operational research agenda and increased coordination among partners working to eliminate the disease. It also will support a governance body, help national programs deploy new treatment strategies and diagnostic tools, and build a platform for effective advocacy and fundraising.

Promising approach to reducing Malaria transmission using ivermectin in South America

Yudi T. Pinilla et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Current strategies to combat malaria transmission are being challenged by widespread insecticide resistance. Ivermectin (IVM) has arisen as a new potential tool to be added to these programs as it has mosquito-lethal and sporontocidal properties making it a promising transmission reduction drug. This is the first study to give evidence of the effect of ivermectin against asexual P. vivax. Moreover, it provides evidence that IVM may affect several parameters of Ross-MacDonald model, including parasite life cycle stages, placing it as a strong candidate for malaria transmission reduction.

Keeping track of mosquitoes: a review of tools to track, record and analyze mosquito flight

Jeroen Spitzen and Willem Takken
Parasites & Vectors
To improve and properly implement vector control interventions, the behavior of the vectors must be well understood with detailed examination of mosquito flight being an essential component. This study provides an overview of current knowledge on mosquito behavior as well as recent developments in tracking techniques. Detailed flight recordings can inform behavioral processes underlying house entry and subsequent host searching that can lead to innovative, adaptive, and more effective vector-control measures.

The impact of insecticide applications on the dynamics of resistance: The case of four Aedes aegypti populations in Brazil

Gabriela de Azambuja Garcia et al.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
In the tropics, the utilization of insecticides is still an important strategy for controlling Aedes aegypti, the principle vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. However, increasing insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations hinders insecticide efficacy on a long-term basis. The four Ae. aegypti populations evaluated were found to be resistant to neurotoxic insecticides, temephos and deltamethrin. However, they were still susceptible to diflubenzuron. The authors posit that this resistance is related to excessive use of insecticide, showing the growing need for joint actions with other types of methodologies, social mobilization, mechanical control and biological complementary alternatives.

Continuing the Fight Against Zika

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supports ongoing surveillance and applied research studies to provide a better understanding of Zika infections, how they are spreading, and where they are occurring. To date, more than 450 pregnant women have been enrolled in ongoing cohort studies in Guatemala and Kenya. More than 1,000 samples from various animals have been collected for the ecological study; all participating countries have received training on new diagnostic tests for Zika; and surveillance activities have led to detection of Zika cases in various countries.

World Hearing Day and the Problem of Infectious and Tropical Diseases

Bill Brieger
Tropical Health Matters
Globally there are several infectious diseases associated with hearing loss. . . Continuing study of Ebola, Lassa Fever and Zika point to infectious tropical diseases as another serious concern.

Digital Bridge collaboration with Cerner, Epic, CDC and others hope to connect EHRs to public health

Bernie Monegain
Healthcare IT News
Digital Bridge, a collaboration among healthcare, public health and health information technology organizations, works on the premise that improving information sharing can improve the nation’s health. As such, the effort entails streamlining interoperability between [electronic health records, or] EHR systems and the [information technology, or] IT systems public health agencies use to monitor disease trends and respond to outbreaks, said Jim Jellison, Director of Practice Support at the Public Health Informatics Institute. “Our current focus is on automating the public health reporting process for infectious diseases.”

The Cancer Threat to Africa's Future

Danny A. Milner
Project Syndicate
While significant progress has been made in halting the spread of communicable diseases in Africa, rates of non-communicable illnesses, especially cancers, are rising. Every year, some 650,000 Africans are diagnosed with cancer, and more than a half-million die from the disease. Within the next five years, there could be more than one million cancer deaths annually in Africa, a surge in mortality that would make cancer one of the continent’s top killers. With just 5% of global funding for cancer prevention spent in Africa, a new global strategy is needed to help manage a looming health crisis.

[AUDIO] World in Progress: Chagas disease spreading across the globe

Andrea Roensberg
Chagas is one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that's considered even more neglected than other NTDs. Once Chagas was confined to the Americas region, but in the past few decades, it has begun to spread to other continents, including Europe. According to the World Health Organization, more than 10,000 people die every year from clinical manifestations of Chagas.

Upcoming Events

March 5-9,  Las Vegas, Nevada
Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society
HIMSS18 brings you the world-class education, cutting-edge products and solutions, and unique networking opportunities you need to solve your biggest health information and technology challenges – all at one time, all in one place.

34th Annual General Meeting of the APHPN
March 5-9,  Asaba, Nigeria
Association of Public Health Physicians of Nigeria
Sub Themes: 1) Healthcare financing options in a fragile economy; 2) Strengthening surveillance systems and emergency preparedness for control of epidemics; 3) Achieving food security and improved nutrition; 4) Promoting community mental health in a fast changing world.

International Women's Day
March 8
International Women's Day (March 8) is a global day celebrating the social, economic, cultural, and political achievements of women. The day also marks a call to action for accelerating gender parity.

54th Annual Scientific Conference of the MSPTM
March 14-15,  Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Malaysian Society of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine
Topics covered: Malaria, Veterinary Parasitology, Vector Biology & Control, Neglected Tropical Diseases, Dengue, Emerging Zoonoses, Medical & Forensic Entomology, Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, General Topics

Improving Women’s Health: HIV, Contraception, Cervical Cancer and Schistosomiasis
March 15,  New York, NY
The New York Academy of Sciences
The symposium will focus on three key areas of intersection between HIV and broader sexual and reproductive health and rights; cervical cancer, hormonal contraception, and female genital schistosomiasis.  In all three areas, recent scientific advances raise the possibility of enhancing women’s health and wellbeing through closer collaboration and engagement between women, their health care providers and health programmers, and policy makers. Furthermore, lessons learned from AIDS activism and advocacy, in terms of demand creation and the right to health, can strengthen the broader community response.

World Water Day
March 22
United Nations
This year’s theme explores how to use nature to overcome the water challenges of the 21st century. Environmental damage, together with climate change, motivates water-related crises around the world. This year, World Water Day looks to investigate nature-based solutions and innovations on "grey" and "green" infrastructure for a sutainable future.

ISNTD Festival
March 27, London, UK
The ISNTD Festival brings together the best in communication, arts, entertainment and science to help complex public health messages reach patients, the public and global health professionals worldwide.

World Vaccine Washington
April 3-5, Washington, DC
Make sure you are at the forefront of the vaccines industry. No matter where your interest lies, we have content, networking and potential partners for you. By bringing eight events together under one roof, you get to choose the sessions which are the most applicable to help your business plan for the future of vaccine research, development and manufacture.

Multilateral Initiative on Malaria 
April 15-18, Dakar, Senegal
The Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM) was established in 1997 with a mission to strengthen and sustain through collaborative research and training, the capacity of malaria-endemic countries in Africa to carry out research that is required to develop and improve tools for malaria control and to strengthen the research-control interphase.

First Annual Awareness for Onchocerciasis 5K Run/Walk
April 22, Washington, District of Columbia
International Eye Foundation
Get ready to run! Come out to our first annual Awareness for Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) 5K Run/Walk on April 22nd at Anacostia Park, Washington DC.

The 28th Molecular Parasitology & Vector Biology Symposium
April 26,  Athens, Georgia
Center for Tropical & Emerging Diseases
The Molecular Parasitology/Vector Biology Symposium includes talks from graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and leading researchers and concludes with a keynote address by an internationally acclaimed investigator in the field of parasitology or vector biology. Poster sessions and a full lunch are also on the schedule for this free event held at the Georgia Center for Continuing Education on the University of Georgia campus in Athens, GA.

8th International Conference of the International Lymphoedema Framework
June 6-9, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
The principal topics for the conference will include: clinical diagnosis and assessment, self-management, epidemiology and pathophysiology, lymphoedema management, oncology rehab, national guidelines, outcome measures, and pediatric and primary lymphedema.

GAELF10 Meeting
June 13-15, New Delhi, India
The 10th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF)

June 25-26, London, UK
ISNTD d3 will bring togther experts from within drug discovery and clinical trials to drive the debate and foster new partnerships & alliances leading to tangible outcomes in terms of new therapies to combat these diseases.

Eradicate Malaria World Congress 2018
July 1-5,  Melbourne, Australia
The inaugural World Congress on Malaria - Eradicate Malaria 2018 - will bring together the broad global community including implementers, scientists, funders, governments, policy makers and those directly affected by the disease. The aim is to bring the broad spectrum of the malaria world together for the first time, to further galvanise the effort for the eradication of malaria.

NNN 2018 
September 24-26, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
We are delighted to announce the dates for the 9th NNN annual conference, subject to venue availability.

67th Annual ASTMH Meeting 
October 28 - November 1,New Orleans, Louisiana
The ASTMH Annual Meeting draws tropical medicine and global health professionals representing academia, government, non-profits, philanthropy, NGOs, industry, military and private practice. The meeting is designed for researchers, professors, government and public health officials, military personnel, travel clinic physicians, practicing physicians in tropical medicine, students and all health care providers working in the fields of tropical medicine, hygiene and global health. 

Women Deliver 2019 Conference 
June 3-6, 2018, Vancouver, Canada
The Women Deliver 2019 Conference – the world’s largest gathering on the health, rights, and wellbeing of women and girls – will serve as a fueling station for advocates working to achieve a more gender equal world. In the summer of 2019, over 6,000 world leaders, influencers, advocates, academics, activists, and journalists will flock to Vancouver with dreams of accelerating progress girls and women everywhere.