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It's World Mosquito Day (& Other NTD News)!

News roundup

This news roundup is a collection of headlines and other items on neglected tropical diseases, and does not reflect the work or the views of the Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center.

 CDC - World Mosquito Day

The mosquito kills more people than any other creature in the world. On this World Mosquito Day, learn more about diseases spread by mosquitoes and what CDC is doing about them globally. Also visit the CDC mosquitoes site to learn more about preventing and treating bites and controlling mosquitoes at home and in the community.


Lymphatic filariasis

Biomedical scientists piece together how medication paralyzes parasitic worms

Richard Martin and Fred Love
Iowa State University News Service
A new study upends the widely held belief that a medication used to treat lymphatic filariasis doesn’t directly target the parasites that cause the disease. The research shows the medication, diethylcarbamazine, temporarily paralyzes the parasites. “If you know how this therapy works, you can start to select and develop better drugs that are maybe even more potent.” - Richard Martin, Distinguished Professor of biomedical sciences

Modeling the metabolic interplay between a parasitic worm and its bacterial endosymbiont allows the identification. . .

David Curran et al.
The filarial nematode Brugia malayi represents a leading cause of disability in the developing world, causing lymphatic filariasis in nearly 40 million people. Currently available drugs are not well-suited to mass drug administration efforts, so new treatments are urgently required. One potential vulnerability is the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia—present in many filariae—which is vital to the worm. Genome scale metabolic networks have been used to study prokaryotes and protists and have proven valuable in identifying therapeutic targets, but have only been applied to multicellular eukaryotic organisms more recently. Here, we present iDC625, the first compartmentalized metabolic model of a parasitic worm. We used this model to show how metabolic pathway usage allows the worm to adapt to different environments, and predict a set of 102 reactions essential to the survival of B. malayi. We validated three of those reactions with drug tests and demonstrated novel antifilarial properties for all three compounds.


Status of parasitological indicators and morbidity burden of onchocerciasis after years of successive implementation. . .

Gebremedhin Gebrezgabiher, Zeleke Mekonnen, Delenasaw Yewhalaw and Asrat Hailu
BMC Public Health
Control and elimination of onchocerciasis requires regular follow-up and evaluation of community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTi) program implementation. This research was aimed to assess the epidemiological status of onchocerciasis in disease endemic communities of Asosa and Yeki districts of Ethiopia after 5 and 15 years of successive CDTi respectively, and to evaluate the decline in infection and morbidity burden.


Cross-reaction of POC-CCA urine test for detection of Schistosoma mekongi in Lao PDR: a cross-sectional study

Anousin Homsana, Peter Odermatt, Phonesavanh Southisavath, Aya Yajima and Somphou Sayasone
Infectious Diseases of Poverty
The point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test is increasingly used as a rapid diagnostic method for Schistosoma mansoni infection. The test has good sensitivity, although false positive results have been reported among pregnant women and patients with urine infections and hematuria. We validated the POC-CCA test’s ability to diagnose Schistosoma mekongi infection in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), where S. mekongi is endemic. Of particular interest was the test’s specificity and possible cross-reactivity with other helminth infections.

The effect of ecological environmental changes and mollusciciding on snail intermediate host of Schistosoma in Qianjiang. . .

Juan Qiu, Rendong Li, Hong Zhu, Jing Xia, Ying Xiao, Duan Huang and Yong Wang
Parastes & Vectors
Schistosomiasis remains prevalent in Africa, Asia and South America with an estimated burden of 1.9 million disability-adjusted life years in 2016. Targeting snails as a key to success for schistosomiasis control has been widely approved, but the long-term quantitative effects of interventions on snail control that would inform and improve future control programmes are unclear. Over the last six decades, schistosomiasis in China had been brought largely under control, and snail control as supplementary methods or part of integrated multisectoral approaches in different historical periods has played an essential role.

Study uncovers how schistosome worms trick the host's immune system

Emily Henderson
News Medical
Jayhun Lee and his colleagues at the Morgridge Institute for Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, explain in a report in PNAS how a specialised gland in the parasite's digestive tract, called esophageal gland, is behind an immune-evasion mechanism essential for its survival while in its host. Lee says one feature of schistosomes — which have a complex life cycle which begins in freshwater contaminated with human excrement — is that the mature parasites can live for a decade or more inside the host's bloodstream where immunity is active.

Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis

Treating children for worms yields long-term benefits, says new study

Edward Lempinen
Berkeley News
Children who receive sustained treatment against common parasitic infections grow up to achieve a higher standard of living, with long-lasting health and economic benefits extending to their communities, according to new findings from a research team led by a University of California, Berkeley, economist. The pioneering study, focused on Kenya and covering 20 years, found that children who receive a few extra years of deworming treatment — costing as little as 50 cents a year — eventually have better jobs and higher incomes than those who got less treatment.


WASH & Trachoma Systematic Review

Matthew Freeman
SHARE Research
The first in this series of SHARE-funded studies exploring the impact of WASH on NTDs, this systematic review compiled and analysed evidence on the importance of WASH in Trachoma elimination strategies. Trachoma is the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. The World Health Organization has endorsed the SAFE strategy in order to eliminate blindness due to trachoma by 2020 through “surgery,” “antibiotics,” “facial cleanliness,” and “environmental improvement.” While the S and A components have been widely implemented, evidence and specific targets are lacking for the F and E components, of which water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are critical elements. However, as of 2013, data on the impact of WASH on Trachoma which could support policy and programme recommendations were lacking. This study addressed this evidence gap, finding strong evidence to support F and E components of the SAFE strategy.

Why tailored programs are needed to improve indigenous health: Lessons from the global trachoma program

International Coalition for Trachoma Control
Since 2002, huge strides have been made towards the global elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. The World Health Organization Weekly Epidemiological Record, published on 24 July 2020, reported that the number of people at risk of trachoma has declined from 1.5 billion in 2002 to 136.9 million in 2020 – a 91% reduction. However, as the global burden of trachoma shrinks, it is becoming increasingly clear that new and tailored approaches are needed to reach many of the most marginalized communities, including indigenous populations, who have limited access to health services as a result of distinct social and cultural practices as well as economic and political policies.

What can the trachoma community teach us about partnerships?

The fight against trachoma involved partnerships early on. In 1998, Pfizer and the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation founded the International Trachoma Initiative, or ITI, — a program of The Task Force for Global Health, an independent not-for-profit — to manage donated stocks of the antibiotic azithromycin, Pfizer’s Zithromax. Since then, ITI has collaborated with a range of governments, academics, nongovernmental organizations, and community volunteers — an early example of a multisector partnership that continues to yield lessons for the entire global health community. One of those lessons has been for all partners to collaborate closely to reach common goals while avoiding duplication of efforts. “The key about trachoma is really that not one single partner could or perhaps even should undertake all of the activities themselves,” said Simon Bush, director of NTDs at Sightsavers. “It's about bringing the right partners in place.”


The Power Of The Youth To End Neglected Tropical Diseases
On this International Youth Day, we celebrate the power of the youth as critical agents of social change at the community, village or national and global levels. We recognize the role that young people play in creating conversations and engaging with the public to take action on unequal opportunities that are rampant mostly among marginalized populations. Youth Combating NTDs is a global community of young people fighting to end neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). This youth-led initiative is designed to mainstream the participation of young people in NTDs and is an example of how young people can be agents of change and contribute to tangible solutions.

UK aid’s flagship neglected tropical disease programme is supporting countries during COVID-19

Ron Bannerman
The COVID-19 pandemic has meant pausing NTD treatments worldwide. When the pandemic broke, the World Health Organization (WHO) advised that NTD activities, including community-based surveys, active case-finding and mass treatment campaigns, should be ‘postponed until further notice’. Hence, the UK Department of International Development (DFID) offered the organisations it works with the chance to adapt their programmes to respond to these exceptional circumstances.


The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific (WPRO) and TDR are pleased to announce the 2020-2021 call for applications for the Joint TDR/WPRO Small Grants Scheme for implementation research in infectious diseases of poverty. The number and scope of infectious diseases of poverty is large and wide. The focus of this call will be on malaria and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that represent a significant burden, disproportionately affect the more vulnerable populations in the Region, and whose elimination and control is considered feasible using available tools and innovative approaches for health services and intervention delivery, and thus targeted by WHO as one of its priorities in the Region.

DEADLINE EXTENDED: Call for nominations – Diagnostics and Technical Advisory Group (DTAG)

World Health Organization
The Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases is soliciting nominations of experts with requisite background and experience to form part of DTAG sub-groups. Those interested should have demonstrated understanding of neglected tropical diseases, health systems, health policies, regulations including current advances in diagnostics technologies. Interested candidates should submit a resumé or curriculum vitae and a motivation letter confirming their willingness and availability to serve and specify whether they would also be willing to serve in other sub-groups.

NOW AVAILABLE IN MULTIPLE LANGUAGES: Considerations for implementing mass treatment, active case‐finding. . .

World Health Organization
The WHO guidance note on resumption of mass treatment, active case-finding and population-based surveys for NTDs in the context of COVID-19 has now been translated into all 6 WHO official languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish), plus Portuguese.


World Mosquito Day 2020: The Spread of Anopheles stephensi and the Fight Against the World’s Deadliest Animal

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
There are more than 3,000 types of mosquitoes—not all created equal. Some bite people, some prefer cows, some live in forests, others prefer cities, some cause itching and irritation, and some carry deadly diseases. In 2012, routine public health tracking activities first detected that a mosquito species called Anopheles stephensi (An. Stephensi) had found its way from its native habitat in Southern Asia to Eastern Africa. Initially spotted in Djibouti, it has since been identified in neighboring Ethiopia (2016), Sudan (2019), and Somalia (2019). An. stephensi—unlike some of its cousins—is an urban vector. It thrives in man-made habitats, where its eggs are laid in water storage containers and wells. It’s also known to actively enter houses. Conversely, the mosquitoes that are primarily responsible for malaria in Eastern Africa, An. gambiae and An. arabiensis, prefer rural habitats.In Djibouti, since the discovery of An. stephensi, there has been a startling increase in urban malaria cases. The simultaneous emergence of An. stephensi and the rise in urban malaria cases raises the possibility that the newly introduced species is responsible for increased malaria transmission.

FIND, CROWN Agents to improve testing for elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya

Africa Science News
The Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) and Crown Agents announced today a new partnership to strengthen visceral leishmaniasis (VL) testing and address current VL outbreaks in Kenya, as part of ASCEND, a UK government initiative to defeat neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). ASCEND (Accelerating the Sustainable Control and Elimination of NTDs) is designed to advance the impact and sustainability of national programmes tackling NTDs. Crown Agents leads a consortium of technical partners to implement ASCEND across South Asia, and East and Southern Africa. FIND is working on essential training of health workers for the diagnosis and management of VL, the supply of rapid diagnostic tests, and community sensitization in Isiolo, Marsabit, Turkana and Wajir counties. Activities are set to expand into Baringo, Garissa, Kitui and West Pokot counties.

Could lessons in controlling Kala-Azar guide our response to other diseases?

Balaram Vishnu Subramani
Research Matters
The current COVID-19 pandemic has shown how unprepared we are in handling a global crisis. In many parts of the world, it has relentlessly exposed the inefficiencies and misplaced priorities of policy-makers. But the current pandemic may not be the exception as experts predict increased outbreaks of diseases in the future. In this light, how do we prepare ourselves? In a recent study, researchers from the Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR-RMRI) present a success story of controlling the spread of Kala-azar in Bihar.

Adding Sickle Cell Disease To FDA’s Priority Review Voucher List Of Neglected Tropical Diseases

Joshua Cohen
On July 16th, Putting Rare Diseases Patients First!® filed a citizen’s petition to add sickle cell disease to the Food and Drug Administration’s priority review voucher list of neglected tropical diseases. Dr. Lorna Speid, founder and president of the non-profit that supports patients with rare and neglected diseases, says her organization took the action because sickle cell disease is the only tropical disease that afflicts a majority African American population in the U.S.

Backcasting from a future health dystopia: 3 ways to prevent it

Vasee Moorthy
World Economic Forum
How can we avoid a future in which advanced healthcare is available only to the richest people and countries? Dedicating more research towards the world's greatest medical needs and incentivizing the private sector to do so could make a big difference. Let's build the global research ecosystem of tomorrow – starting today.

[VIDEO] Peter Hotez: Why Experts Should Embrace Science Communication

Grant M. Gallagher
"We've lost our interest in engaging the public." Citing the rise of the anti-vaccine movement, Peter Hotez, MD, PhD, explains the role scientists can play in building trust and literacy by engaging the public. While past academic attitudes tended to see this open door approach as insufficiently humble, the internet has dramatically changed expectations around science communication and provided a new platform that (for better or worse) isn't going away.

OPEN FOR APPLICATIONS: Skills for Excellence In Science Series (SEXISS) Good Clinical Practice (GCP) 2020

Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
GCP 2020 is an intensive workshop which covers basic concepts to equip participants with practical and contextual knowledge needed towards implementing GCP-compliant medical research involving humans. The training is designed to be immersive, combining rich interactive online and in-person lectures and case studies with practical sessions delivered by carefully selected faculty. Dates for on-site workshop: Monday - Wednesday, October 26 – 28, 2020; 9:00am – 5:00pm each day. This workshop shall be accredited for CPD points by the Pharmacy Council and the Medical and Dental Council of Ghana.


How COVID-19 threatens global progress in fight against other communicable diseases

Elana Gordon
The Week
Dr. Joy Shu'aibu, program director of Sightsavers in Nigeria, a group focused on eliminating some serious, neglected tropical diseases, has seen her work stalled since March as a result of the coronavirus. . . "I'm afraid that if we do not find a balance between meeting the needs of people with neglected, tropical diseases in a safe way, we may lose the gains that we have made," Shu-aibu said. A modeling study recently published in The Lancet journal projected a big impact of COVID-19 on diseases like HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria in low- and middle-income countries. "It's important for countries not just to focus on the imminent crisis," said Britta Jewell, researcher and co-author of the modeling study at Imperial College London.

Estimating mortality from COVID-19

World Health Organization
An important characteristic of an infectious disease, particularly one caused by a novel pathogen like SARS-CoV-2, is its severity, the ultimate measure of which is its ability to cause death. Fatality rates help us understand the severity of a disease, identify at-risk populations, and evaluate quality of healthcare. There are two measures used to assess the proportion of infected individuals with fatal outcomes. The first is infection fatality ratio (IFR), which estimates this proportion of deaths among all infected individuals. The second is case fatality ratio (CFR), which estimates this proportion of deaths among identified confirmed cases. To measure IFR accurately, a complete picture of the number of infections of, and deaths caused by, the disease must be known. Consequently, at this early stage of the pandemic, most estimates of fatality ratios have been based on cases detected through surveillance and calculated using crude methods, giving rise to widely variable estimates of CFR by country – from less than 0.1% to over 25%.

Africa marks six months of COVID-19

World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa
Africa marks six months on 14 August since COVID-19 was first detected on the continent. While the virus has raced through many other regions of the world, the pandemic’s evolution on the African continent has been different. Preliminary analysis by the World Health Organization (WHO) finds that an exponential surge in cases which peak about two to three weeks later is not occurring in Africa. Instead, many countries are experiencing a gradual rise in COVID-19 cases and it is difficult to discern a specific peak. Transmission patterns also differ between countries, but more importantly within countries.

COVID-19 Among American Indian and Alaska Native Persons — 23 States, January 31–July 3, 2020

Sarah M. Hatcher et al.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons appear to be disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic; however, limited data are available to quantify the disparity in COVID-19 incidence, severity, and outcomes among AI/AN persons compared with those among other racial/ethnic groups. In 23 states with adequate race/ethnicity data, the cumulative incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 among AI/AN persons was 3.5 times that among non-Hispanic white persons. A large percentage of missing data precluded analysis of some characteristics and outcomes. Adequate health care and public health infrastructure resources are needed to support a culturally responsive public health effort that sustains the strengths of AI/AN communities. These resources would facilitate the collection and reporting of more complete case report data to support evidence-based public health efforts.

The Push to Deploy At-Home Antigen Tests for COVID-19

Chris Baraniuk
The Scientist
In essence, antigen tests are the reverse of antibody tests. In the latter, viral proteins, the antigens, are distributed across a plate within the test device. If an individual’s blood sample contains antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, those antibodies will bind to the antigens, triggering an emission of light or color change, indicating a positive result. Antigen tests, in contrast, contain antibodies on the plate instead. These are just like those generated naturally by people and animals to fight off a COVID-19 infection. When a sample, usually a nasal swab, containing virus particles is applied to the assay, the antibodies bind to the viral antigens and similarly trigger a visible result to show that someone is presently infected.

How the Pharma Industry Pulled Off the Pivot to COVID-19

Diana Kwon
The Scientist
What started out as an outbreak in China has now spread to almost every nation in the world, infected millions of people, and killed hundreds of thousands. To deal with the global threat, numerous pharmaceutical and biotech companies have adapted their pipelines to COVID-19 over the last few months. There are now close to 400 compounds being evaluated as treatments or vaccines in various preclinical studies or clinical trials and more than 700 diagnostic tests either commercially available or in development. The need for rapid solutions has brought companies together, and has pushed researchers to work at breakneck speeds—often while dealing with complications brought about by lockdowns and social distancing measures.

VERIFY: Can mosquitoes spread COVID-19?

Evam Koslof
Question: Can mosquitoes spread COVID-19 from person to person? Answer: No. Medical experts reported to the Verify team that this is not possible. The World Health Organization (WHO) has said for months that there is "no evidence" that this transmission can occur.

[VIDEO] Outbreak: The First Response

Soledad O'Brien
Yahoo! Live
Yahoo Life partnered with Emmy- and Peabody Award-winning broadcaster Soledad O'Brien with the exclusive digital premiere of the documentary Outbreak: The First Response. O'Brien and her film crew were at ground zero of the pandemic in Seattle earlier this year, and they captured dramatic, heart-wrenching footage and personal stories showing the virus's toll on at-risk communities, notably the homeless population and the residents of the Life Care Center nursing home in Kirkland, Wash., which was devastated by the outbreak. The documentary is an important chronicle of the toll of the COVID-19 pandemic on America's most vulnerable from the earliest stages. In the article below, O’Brien reports on the most recent threat brought on by the pandemic: millions of Americans who face homelessness as eviction moratoriums expire around the country.


NOTE - Events may be postponed or cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Please check with event organizers to confirm events.

STH Operations Resarch in Kenya
August 25, 2020, Webinar
We look forward to seeing you at our next STH Coalition webinar on August 25th, 2020, 9.00-10.30 AM EDT on STH Operations Research in Kenya Dr. Sultani Matendechero, Head, Division of Vector Borne & Neglected Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Health, Kenya, and member of the STH Advisory Committee, will chair and facilitate the webinar. 

Africa Kicks Out Polio
August 25, 2020, Livestream
Join us on 25 August to celebrate the expected certification of wild poliovrus eradication in the World Health Organization's African Region. The livestream event will be held during the virtual session of the 70th WHO Regional Committee for Africa. 

How can WASH help to reach the 2030 road map targets
September 2, Webinar
Webinar of the World Health Organization

Learn Implementation Research (IR) Online
Beginning September 2, 2020, Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)
This course is a step-by-step online training for public health researchers and decision-makers, disease control programme managers, academics and others that focuses on how to design and demonstrate robust IR projects to improve control of infectious diseases of poverty and generate better health outcomes. Available in English, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, French, Russian and Arabic.

Building Healthy Communities
September 2, 2020, Virtual Event
Many Americans have put off non-urgent medical care, like regular check-ups, including immunizations. Without proper measures and planning, there could be a compounded health crisis this winter and beyond. Join The Atlantic for Building Healthy Communities, where we will gather health care leaders and discuss the process to get Americans vaccines during an international health crisis. What are stakeholders doing to get everyone on board, even groups who haven't had equal access to health care?

NTD NGO Network Annual Meeting - VIRTUAL
September 8-10, 2020
With the theme, Accelerating to 2030: Building Resilient NTD Programmes in a Changing World, the 2020 NNN Conference is looking to be the most forward-thinking yet. This free three-day event will feature 18 exciting workshops and two rapid fire sessions highlighting the BEST Framework’s role in accelerating progress on NTDs toward 2030. The plenaries will include a high-level panel discussion and exciting NTD Innovation Prizes.

Social innovation response to emergencies
September 9, 2020, Webinar
Learn how social innovations are helping to curb COVID-19 and could potentially adapt to respond to future health emergencies.

75th Session of the UN General Assembly - VIRTUAL
September 15-30, 2020
All 193 Member States of the Organization are represented in the General Assembly - one of the six main organs of the UN - to discuss and work together on a wide array of international issues covered by the Charter of the United Nations, such as development, peace and security, international law, etc. Every year in September, all the Members meet in this unique forum for the General Assembly session.

Is it business as usual? What innovation is needed in NTDs to reach the 2030 targets across 20 diseases
September 16, Webinar
Webinar of the World Health Organization

September 29 - October 1, 2020, Lomé, Togo
More details to follow.

What role does disability and stigma play in planning elimination, eradication and control of NTDs?
October 7, Webinar
Webinar of the World Health Organization

Meet the Social Innovators
October 7, 2020, Webinar
How can innovators, governments, researchers and foundations work together to advance social innovation in health efforts through research and guided by strong evidence?  

World Sight Day
October 9, 2020
World Sight Day (WSD) is an annual day of awareness held on the second Thursday of October, to focus global attention on blindness and vision impairment. World Sight Day 2020 is on 9 October 2020.

11th IAPB General Assembly - POSTPONED
October 12-14, 2020, Singapore
The General Assembly will mark the end of the VISION 2020: The Right to Sight period. It will present a great opportunity to take stock, celebrate successes and make plans for the future. A key focus will be on the WHO’s World Report on Vision and its framework for the future. The event will have three co-chairs leading on three streams: “Excellence”, “Eye Health in the West Pacific” and “Sustainability”. 

Expo 2020 Dubai: Global Best Practice Programme
October 20 2020 - April 10, 2021
Expo 2020 Dubai’s platform to showcase projects that have provided tangible solutions to the world’s biggest challenges. It will highlight simple but effective initiatives, which localise the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and can be adapted, replicated, and scaled to achieve an enhanced global impact.

Skin deep – How do we deal with skin diseases to reach the 2030 NTD Road Map?
October 21, Webinar
Webinar of the World Health Organization

World Health Summit 
October 25-27, 2020, Berlin, Germany
The World Health Summit is one of the world’s leading strategic forums for global health. Held annually in Berlin, it brings together leaders from politics, science and medicine, the private sector, and civil society to set the agenda for a healthier future. 300 speakers and 2,500 participants from 100 countries take part.

6th World One Health Congress 
October 30 - November 3, 2020, Edinburgh, Scotland
The 6th World One Health Congress is the largest One Health event of the year, where experts and researchers from around the world present their latest scientific research.

Optimizing One health and Global Vector Control Response to reach the 2030 NTD Roadmap goals
November 10, 2020, Webinar
Webinar of the World Health Organization

#TropMed20 - Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene
November 15-19, 2020, Virtual Meeting
The ASTMH Annual Meeting draws tropical medicine and global health professionals representing academia, foundations, government, not for profit organizations, non-governmental organizations, the private sector, military and private practice. The meeting is designed for researchers, professors, government and public health officials, military personnel, travel clinic physicians, practicing physicians in tropical medicine, students and all healthcare providers working in the fields of tropical medicine, hygiene and global health

What role do partnerships play in NTDs and the roll out of the new Roadmap?
December 2, 2020, Webinar
Webinar of the World Health Organization

The leadership needed to stimulate the battle against NTDs
December 16, 2020, Webinar
Webinar of the World Health Organization