Schistosomiasis

mHealth Platforms - Operational Research to optimize approaches to improve data flow and accounting

Determine the best data-capture system and implementation model to overcome data flow challenges faced by national MDA programs. Test and compare the effectiveness of 4 different data-tracking platforms currently in use (or development) in NTD endemic countries: 1) Build on existing national capacity, 2) Cloud-based SMS system, 3) Robo-call platform.

Preliminary study findings:

o The current process for tracking treatment information through paper-based forms can be complicated and leaves room for human error, as multiple aggregations of data must be collected manually between administrative levels before reaching the national level. 

o This study found that the process of collecting and reporting paper records on the stock and delivery of ivermectin, albendazole and Praziquantel took between two and three months. 

o The study found that robo-call surveys have the potential to add a new stream of information on drug stock between national supervisors and sub-district implementation teams, allowing program staff to take corrective actions in response to issues with drug supply.

o The proactive timing of the calls as well as the interactive component of responding to verbal questions through the phone makes this system useful to supervisors. 

o Robo-calls were found to be helpful to monitor drug levels prior to MDA at sub-district level and to ensure appropriate quantities of drug stock were reaching lower administrative level, but as post-MDA drug stock is returned to the district level, physical observation of district-level storerooms was the most effective way to assess drug quantities post-MDA.  

o SMS reporting made data accessible at the national level and to administrative units in real time. 

o Less than half of the registered supervisors submitted SMS reports, resulting in a significant difference in the number and type of treatments reported when compared to paper forms. 

o Greater training and ongoing management is needed to take full advantage of the speed and data accuracy improvements from robo-call and SMS surveys.

 

Countries: Uganda

Alternative approaches to coverage surveys (Uganda)

To compare coverage evaluation methods to identify a method that is statistically rigorous and feasible for programs. This study will focus on assessing MDA coverage for lymphatic filariasis by comparing the cost, time and feasibility of 3 different methods: the EPI approach (n=1768), LQAS design (n=95) and probability sampling alternatives (n=1768).

Primary Findings and Lessons Learned

Coverage surveys are an important tool for programs to evaluate their reporting systems and to determine whether effective MDA coverage has been achieved. However, for various reasons coverage surveys are seldom implemented.  Some key challenges are: perceived technical difficulty, lack of resources, and lack of standardized guidance on how to conduct coverage surveys.  This protocol seeks to address the 1st and 3rd points by comparing the feasibility of three different coverage survey methods (EPI approach, LQAS, and segmentation).     This study was completed in 3 districts in Burkina Faso.  All 3 districts found that their survey coverage was above the WHO target threshold (65% for LF).  Furthermore, in all 3 cases the survey coverage validated (or nearly validated) the reported coverage. Taken together this suggests that the Burkina Faso program is working well.   The feasibility results found all 3 methods to be very similar with regards to time, cost and perceived difficulty.  Because only the segmentation approach results in a probability sample, this method was recommended by the M&E Working Group and ultimately approved by the STAG.  Since the approval, significant work has been underway to create guidelines for conducting coverage surveys for preventive chemotherapy.  An excel tool was created to improve the usability of the tool and online learning modules are currently in the works.

Countries: Uganda

Evaluation of CCA urine-tests for diagnosis of Schistosoma guineensis infection in Cameroon

To determine if the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) rapid diagnostic test is as effective as the Kato-Katz (KK) test in diagnosing S. guinensis

Countries: Cameroon
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Rapid Answer Projects (RAPs)

Literature review, meta-analyses; 3 RAPs published; one RAP white paper; see SCORE website http://score.uga.edu/projects/rapid-answers-project/

Countries:
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Riverine Prawns

What is the the impact of riverine prawns on infections in humans? Studies are to be conducted on interrupting seasonal transmission of Schistosomiasis and ecologic assessment of riverine prawns on infections in humans.

Countries: Cote d'Ivoire
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Elimination of S. haematobium in Seasonal Transmission Sites

This study will include comparing 1) MDA as usual 2) double treatment with two closely-spaced MDAs (consistent with the recommendation based on mathematical models) 3) twice yearly MDA and 4) double MDA plus snail control.

Countries: Cote d'Ivoire
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Field evaluation of two schistosome antibody-based rapid tests at point-of-care for prevalence mapping of urinary schistosomiasis in The Gambia

CCA Protocol: To know the sensitivity and specificity of POC CCA in the detection of urinary schistosomiasis, as compared to traditional diagnostic tools.

Countries: Gambia
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Multi-country perspective on mobile data collection

SCORE Data Collection on Mobile Devises

Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Snail control in Kenya with 20 year follow-up

Snail Control follow-up study of P. clarkii 20 years later

Countries: Kenya
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Analysis of schistosomiasis diagnostics

Human Diagnostics Tool Development (CAA diagnostic tool)

Countries: Tanzania
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

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