Other study design

Community implementation and comparison of Human landing and Non human landing collection methods for vectors of Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus for entomological monitoring of transmission (Uganda)

To determine the feasibility of the use of entomological traps by community members for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis entomological assessments.

Countries: Uganda

Development of a Mobile Reader for Rapid Diagnostic Tests

Can a mobile reader be used to standardize the reading of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)?

Post-MDA Estimated LF Prevalence

To develop models that can predict MF prevalence after a given number of rounds of MDA as a tool to identify program settings in which the response to MDA is less than predicted. 

Feasibility, acceptability and cost implications of utilizing the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 rapid test for onchocerciasis surveillance activities in Senegal

The demonstration study of the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 rapid test aims to provide operational research data on the use and implementation of the test. The performance of the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 rapid test has been verified in both reference laboratories as well as in controlled field settings. PATH and partners will explore the feasibility of incorporating the test into multiple sites in sub-Saharan Africa, with Senegal as a pilot country.

 We aim to demonstrate the acceptability and feasibility of the SD BIOLINE Onchocerciasis IgG4 test in the Senegal Onchocerciasis Control Programme surveillance activities relative to the diagnostic and collection tools currently used. 

Countries: Senegal
Diseases: Onchocerciasis

Evaluation of the Short Term Impact of MDA on Prevalence and Intensity

The purpose of this study is to determine differences between cure rates vs re-infection levels.  The fundamental question is to see what the prevalence and intensity are before MDA, and then, see what those are 7 to 8 weeks after MDA.  Since there are villages that continue to have high prevalence from year to year, we will determine if this primarily represents reinfection occurring since the last annual MDA or if it is related more to treatment efficacy.

Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Molecular Xenomonitoring for Lymphatic Filariasis in Bangladesh

Mass drug administration (MDA) programs have dramatically reduced lymphatic filariasis (LF) incidence in many areas around the globe, including Bangladesh. Post-treatment surveillance activities as recommended by WHO include repeated transmission assessment surveys (TAS) among children and ongoing surveillance to detect new foci of transmission and collect data on infection trends in the general population. The contribution of molecular xenomonitoring (MX, or detection of filarial DNA in mosquitoes) to confirm the interruption of transmission during the post-treatment surveillance phase has not been well defined. There is also a need to better understand the relationship between the prevalence of W. bancrofti DNA in mosquitoes and infection in humans.

Countries: Bangladesh

An evaluation of the effectiveness of the trachoma surveillance strategy and the use of alternative diagnostic indicators to validate the elimination of blinding trachoma in Ghana

To determine if PCR or serology techniques are better than TF for assessing Trachoma prevalence during the surveillance phase of Trachoma Elimination Programs.

Countries: Ghana
Diseases: Trachoma | Yaws

Achieving LF Elimination in the Pacific Island Countries

Organize existing data for preparation of LF elimination dossiers based on the PacELF programs.

Countries: Japan | Australia

Post-MDA LF Surveillance Modeling: Developing Stratified Risk Maps

The purpose of this project is to create maps that utilize LF risk and prevalence data to predict risk of recrudescence, and to stratify this risk into 3-4 distinct groups. Such maps could subsequently be used to design and simulate the performance of different surveillance strategies. 

Preliminary study findings:

  • The intensity of transmission was quantified by the basic reproductive number (R0).

  • A map of predicted prevalence of microfilaraemia, developed through Bayesian geostatistical modelling, was linked to mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of lymphatic filariasis.

  • The models predict a marked geographical heterogeneity in the intensity of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Further control efforts may be required in areas of higher intensity of transmission.

  • Conversely, interruption of transmission might be achieved earlier in areas of low intensity of transmission.

  • The results suggest that intensity of transmission at baseline (R0) and bednet use are the best indicators for the level of surveillance required sub-nationally post-MDA.