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Displaying 151 - 180 of 291

Trachoma in the Western Pacific

Determine whether current or historic C. trachomatis (Ct) infection can be detected, and whether it is associated with clinical signs of ‘trachomatous inflammation – follicular’ (TF) in Vanuatu and Kiribati

Determine the utility of infection testing as a tool for operational surveillance and impact assessment in trachoma-endemic environments.

Countries: Kiribati | Vanuatu
Diseases: Trachoma

Integrated Transmission Assessment Survey (iTAS) in Burkina Faso

To study the feasibility of LF and Oncho (Filariases) integrated transmission assessment survey (iTAS)  according to both LF and Onchocerciasis  WHO elimination guidelines

Countries: Burkina Faso

Integrated Transmission Assessment Survey (iTAS) in Nigeria

To study the feasibility of LF and Oncho (Filariases) integrated transmission assessment survey iTAS) according to both LF and Onchocerciasis WHO elimination guidelines

Countries: Nigeria

TAS Strengthening in the Philippines

To determine if there is evidence of ongoing transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Mindoro Oriental, following a TAS 2 failure.

Countries: Philippines

Bangladesh STH Diagnostic Comparison: PCR vs. Kato-Katz

To determine if a standardized multi-parallel-PCR assay is a more sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting Hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides prevalence compared to the Kato-Katz stool test.

Countries: Bangladesh

Understanding the best uses of the Supervisor's Coverage Tool (SCT) for monitoring school-based distributions

  • To use the Supervisor's Coverage Tool (SCT) to monitor school-based deworming;
  • To determine the feasibility of utilizing the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) methodology in a school-based SCT; and 
  • To apply a checklist in schools to elicit information about the performance of the MDA.

While the Supervisor’s Coverage Tool (SCT), a rapid in-process monitoring tool for improving mass drug administration (MDA) coverage, has been approved by WHO for use in communities, questions still remain about its utility for school-based sampling. As a result, the SCT was implemented in 20 randomly selected schools in each of six sub-counties (used as Supervision Areas) in three Kenyan counties in March 2017. A total of 120 students were selected and interviewed. 

Findings and lessons learned:

  • The coverage for albendazole was classified as “good”, meaning above the WHO threshold, in 5 of the 6 SAs; however, only 1 SA was classified as having “good” coverage for praziquantel. In 3 of the 6 SAs, the Praziquantel coverage was classified as “inadequate”, including an SA that did not receive a supply of praziquantel to distribute.
  • The most common reasons for not swallowing the drugs were students’ absences and drugs being out of stock or expired. The most common reasons for refusing intake of praziquantel were fear of side effects and religious beliefs, including misinformation coming from teachers to students about beliefs that albendazole was safe for all children, whereas praziquantel was dangerous and only reserved for sick children.
  • Some of the challenges during the SCT activity were schools that operated half day, schools that had ongoing examinations, and unforeseen closure of a school on the day of SCT implementation, which made the random selection of students difficult. In addition, when an absent student or a student over 15 years of age (ineligible due to age range) was selected, it resulted in a loss of time since the selection needed to be repeated. Class interruptions to conduct the study were also not welcomed by some schools.
  • While implementing the SCT in schools seems efficient compared to community SCT implementation, it is important to make sure that enrolment registers are accurate. Often, teachers at the schools with incomplete registers do not want to be held accountable.
  • The cost of the SCT could be greatly reduced by implementing it in a shorter time period of three days instead of five, and with a pair of individuals per SA instead of four. The SCT can easily be integrated into routine supervisory activities as part of the MDA, and it can be conducted immediately after the MDA. It is a feasible activity that should be considered for widespread adoption. 
Countries: Kenya

Laboratory analysis of Ov16 ELISA and Skin snip PCR to support surveillance activities in National programs. Multi-country comparison of diagnostic tools to detect Onchocerca volvulus.

To compare the performance of the diagnostic tools currently available for O. volvulus in terms of their relative sensitivity, species-specificity and practical use by countries.  Comparison of the utility of these tools for mapping and surveillance in settings with different levels of endemicity for onchocerciasis (Oncho), lymphatic filariasis (LF) and/or loiasis.

Countries: Burkina Faso
Diseases: Onchocerciasis

Integrated Mapping of Onchocerciasis, Lymphatic Filariasis, and Loiasis in Cameroon

To pilot a strategy for mapping and treating Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis in Loa loa co-endemic areas.

Countries: Cameroon

Field-testing a Lateral Flow Assay for anti-Chlamydial Antibody Responses

To field-test the Pgp3 lateral flow assay to compare data obtained in the field on the rapid test to that from DBS collected from the same individual tested on the Pgp3 multiplex bead array.

Countries: Tanzania
Diseases: Trachoma

Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis and cataract in northern Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study

Is there an association between podoconiosis and two common eye diseases; cataract and trachomatous trichiasis?

Countries:
Diseases: Podoconiosis | Trachoma

BURDEN ASSESSMENT OF PODOCONIOSIS IN WAYU TUKA WOREDA, EAST WOLLEGA ZONE, WESTERN ETHIOPIA

What is the burden of podoconiosis lymphoedema and acute attack in Western Ethiopia?

 

Countries:
Diseases: Podoconiosis

Interventions in Persistent Hot-Spots in Kenya

Will providing enhanced MDA at the community level while achieving treatment coverage of 75% or greater in children (5-17) and adults substantially decrease S. mansoni infection in previously identified persistent hot-spot communities?  

Countries: Kenya
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Xenomonitoring Surveillance

Is molecular detection of schistosome infection (patent and pre-patent) in snails a useful tool for program managers as prevalence and intensity of infection in people approaches very low levels?

Countries: Tanzania
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Interventions in Persistent Hot-Spots in Tanzania

How do villages which do not show substantial decreases in the prevalence of schistosomiasis despite repeated, high coverage mass drug administration (persistent hot-spot villages) differ from villages which show substantial decrease in prevalence across various factors (declining prevalence villages)?

Countries: Tanzania
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Economic analysis in SCORE projects

Economic evaluation of SCORE projects with priority given to elimination studies

 

Countries: Tanzania | Cote d'Ivoire
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Triple Drug Therapy for LF

Comparison of safety profile and acceptability between triple drug therapy (IVM,DEC,ALB) and standard two-drug therapy (DEC, ALB), plus STH evaluation.

TAS Strengthening in Haiti

To evaluate strategies to improve the sensitivity of the TAS for detecting evidence of recent lymphatic filariasis transmission in an evaluation unit (EU). The TAS Strengthening Study in Haiti is designed to assess additional indicators that may be added to the current TAS platform in order to strengthen the resulting stopping or surveillance decisions. A comprehensive analysis will be conducted to understand the correlation between antigen and antibody in adults and children with the mosquito data. A spatial analysis looking at microfoci of infection will also be conducted.  Xenomonitoring work to assess Culex mosquitoes will be conducted in the same sites as the human sampling. 

Preliminary Findings and Lessons Learned

The ultimate goal of this study is to strengthen the existing TAS platform so that the programs can be more confident with their stopping and surveillance decisions.   In order to strengthen the existing TAS platform we need to better understand which target population(s) and diagnostic indicator(s) are best-suited for identifying areas with persistent transmission that is not expected to cease on its own, knowing that the answer may vary according the primary vector and stage of the program.  In the selected sites a community-based TAS was conducted using the standard sampling of 6-7 year olds while a community TAS (individuals >8 years) was conducted concurrently.  All samples were tested via FTS and DBS (for Wb123 ELISA).  In these same communities a molecular xenomonitoring study will take place and the mosquitoes will be tested for filarial DNA to relate back to the human specimens.  To date human sampling has been completed in all sites and laboratory analysis of the specimens is complete. Mosquito collection has been completed in Haiti and Tanzania and the PCR analysis has been completed in Haiti and is planned for Tanzania (pending the arrival of a new PCR machine).  In American Samoa xenomonitoring has been delayed due to weather conditions and arbovirus outbreaks; work is expected to commence spring 2018.

Countries: Haiti

TAS Strengthening in Tanzania

To evaluate strategies to improve the sensitivity of the TAS for detecting evidence of recent lymphatic filariasis transmission in an evaluation unit (EU). The TAS Strengthening Study in Tanzania is designed to assess additional indicators that may be added to the current TAS platform in order to strengthen the resulting stopping or surveillance decisions. A comprehensive analysis will be conducted to understand the correlation between antigen and antibody in adults and children with the mosquito data. A spatial analysis looking at microfoci of infection will also be conducted. Because the EU is also endemic for onchocerciasis, the new Ov16 monoplex RDT was used in the field. The Wb123 and Ov16 antibodies were assessed via ELISA in the NIMR lab in Tanga and the results will soon be compiled.  Xenomonitoring work to assess Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, as well as black flies, is underway.

Preliminary Findings and Lessons Learned

The ultimate goal of this study is to strengthen the existing TAS platform so that the programs can be more confident with their stopping and surveillance decisions.   In order to strengthen the existing TAS platform we need to better understand which target population(s) and diagnostic indicator(s) are best-suited for identifying areas with persistent transmission that is not expected to cease on its own, knowing that the answer may vary according the primary vector and stage of the program.  In the selected sites a community-based TAS was conducted using the standard sampling of 6-7 year olds while a community TAS (individuals >8 years) was conducted concurrently.  All samples were tested via FTS and DBS (for Wb123 ELISA).  In these same communities a molecular xenomonitoring study will take place and the mosquitoes will be tested for filarial DNA to relate back to the human specimens.  To date human sampling has been completed in all sites and laboratory analysis of the specimens is complete. Mosquito collection has been completed in Haiti and Tanzania and the PCR analysis has been completed in Haiti and is planned for Tanzania (pending the arrival of a new PCR machine).  In American Samoa xenomonitoring has been delayed due to weather conditions and arbovirus outbreaks; work is expected to commence spring 2018.

Countries: Tanzania

Triple Drug Therapy (India)

To determine the frequency, type and severity of adverse events following triple-drug therapy (IVM+DEC+ALB, IDA) compared to the standard two-drug treatment (DEC+ALB, DA) in infected and uninfected individuals in a community.

To compare the efficacy of IDA vs. DA administered in communities for clearance of Mf and filarial antigenemia (Ag) in cohort and effectiveness (prevalence) in community settings. To assess the presence and intensity of filarial infection on the frequency and severity of adverse events. To compare community acceptance of MDA with IDA vs. DA.

Countries: India

LFTAS + Biplex + DBS in Oncho endemic areas in Cameroon

To assess if transmission assessment surveys (TAS) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) are a feasible platform to integrate transmission assessment for onchocerciasis, using the same age group (6-7 years old) and the same prevalence threshold (<2%) that the LF programs utilize.

1. To perform the TAS for stopping LF MDA and use it as platform for Oncho impact assessment.
2. To assess the level of endemicity of Oncho following at least five rounds of MDA in hypo, meso and hyper endemic districts.
3. To study the performance of the Wb123/Ov16 Biplex rapid diagnostic test (RDT) to assess Oncho and LF transmission interruption.

 

Preliminary study findings:

  • This study involved an integrated impact assessment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis using the LF TAS platform and the serologic rapid text Biplex in the Northern area of Cameroon.
  • The study sites covered 31 health districts in the Far-North and North regions, constituting nine evaluation units, for which TAS1 was planned.
  • Community-based cluster surveys were conducted collecting GPS and demographic information, lymphedema symptoms, and testing by FTS, by Wb123/Ov16 Biplex, and by Night Blood Smear of 6 and 7 year old children.
  • In total, 13,957 children were recruited from 267 enumeration units (villages).
  • Ten children showed evidence of LF exposure or infection: 4 were positive by FTS and 6 were positive by Wb123 (via biplex).  No children tested positive for both FTS and Wb123. 
  • Night blood smears - conducted in children who were positive by FTS and by Wb123/Ov16 Biplex - were all negative.
  • For onchocerciasis, one individual was Ov16 positive (by Biplex).

In conclusion, all nine evaluation units passed the TAS1 assessment. As for onchocerciasis, study results are consistent with the previous hypo-endemic status of the area.

Countries: Cameroon

Develop epidemiological and entomological methods to assess verification of transmission interruption of Onchocerciasis in Equatorial Guinea- Africa

After two decades of onchocerciasis control activities in Bioko island, transmission is expected to be interrupted. This study aims to demonstrate that WHO criteria to verify transmission interruption have been met. It also aims to standardize the reading of RDTs, particularly the FTS and Ov16, and reduce the potential for human error.

Preliminary Study Findings:

A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2016 to January 2017. Participants were 5- to 9-year-old school children. Onchocerciasis/lymphatic Filariasis (LF, only in endemic districts) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were performed. Blood spots were collected from RDT positive children and 10 percent of the RDT negatives to determine Ov16 and Wb123 IgG4 antibodies through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Skin snips were collected from RDT positives. Filarial detection was performed by PCR in positives and indeterminate sera. Black fly collection was carried out in traditional breeding sites. A total of 7,052 children, ranging from 5 to 9 years of age, were included in the study. Four children (0.06%) were Ov16 IgG4 RDT positives, but negative by ELISA Ov16, while 6 RDT negative children tested positive by ELISA. A total of 1,230 children from the Riaba and Baney districts were tested for LF. One child was Wb123 RDT positive (0.08%), but ELISA negative, while 3 RDT negative children were positive by Wb123 ELISA. All positive samples were negative by PCR for onchocerciasis and LF (in blood spot and skin snip). All fly collections and larval prospections in the traditional catching and prospection sites were negative.

Read more in Herrador et al.: https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0006471

Countries: Equatorial Guinea

Identification of serosurveilance antigens for schistosomiasis

To identify antigens that can be produced as recombinant proteins and to document elimination of schistosomiasis.

To identify antigens that differentiate between infections with Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium and that can be used in an ELISA, lateral flow assay or multiplex format.

Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Ongoing Post-treatment Surveillance for Lymphatic Filariasis in Bangladesh

To evaluate the utility of ongoing surveillance of adults in a post-treatment setting.

To determine if post-treatment surveillance of adults represents a more effective surveillance strategy than TAS or xenomonitoring.

 

Countries: Bangladesh

Single vs. multiple treatments of praziquantel in intestinal African schistosomiasis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial investigation using new diagnostic tools

Rigorous assessment of the efficacy of (multiple) doses with Praziquantel in the treatment of S. mansoni infections using standard and novel highly sensitive diagnostic tools.

Countries: Cote d'Ivoire
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

TakeUp: Testing the Impact of Incentives on Compliance with Community-based Mass Deworming through a Field Experiment in Kenya

•What is the influence of social and behavioural incentives on the increase in cost-effective demand for deworming medication among adult population?

•What is the impact of social incentives on take-up and cost-effectiveness of deworming treatment?

•What is the impact of consumption incentives on take-up and cost-effectiveness deworming treatment?

•Can any increase in takeup be attributed to signaling effect wherein individuals are motivated to access treatment in order to demonstrate that they have engaged in pro-social behavior?

Countries: Kenya

Assessment of LF status in Two Urban Settings of Benin (Cotonou and Porto-Novo)

To determine whether there is LF transmission in Cotonou and Porto-Novo, which are the two main urban locations of Benin where the LF status is undetermined. A study will be conducted to evaluate the prevalence of LF using antigenemia and antibody testing (FTS and Wb123). An entomological survey will be implemented to understand the dynamic of LF transmission and potential barriers to LF MDA in urban settings. 

Preliminary study findings:

  • While mass drug administration (MDA) in Benin is on track to eliminate LF in most endemic cities, 50 such cities – including the country’s largest cities, Cotonou and Porto Novo – never received treatements.
  • In 2016, more than 15 years after mapping, LF endemicity was re-evaluated in Cotonou and Porto Novo to put in place adequate strategies for LF elimination. This study constituted that re-mapping effort.
  • The various surveys, conducted in vectors and humans through collection of entomological and parasitological data, reveal an absence of LF transmission in Cotonou and Porto Novo.
  • The results demonstrate that the number of cities endemic for LF in Benin has dropped from 50 to 48.
  • However, the study revealed a lack of awareness of LF by residents and health workers, highlighting the need for more education and awareness raising on the disease.
Countries: Benin

Mapping LF-Loa Coendemicity in South Sudan

Mapping LF-Loa Coendemicity in South Sudan

Countries: South Sudan

Mapping LF-Loa Coendemicity in Angola

Mapping LF-Loa Coendemity

Countries: Angola

Mapping LF-Loa Coendemicity in Chad

Mapping LF-Loa Coendemicity

Countries: Chad

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