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- To evaluate strategies for the elimination of trachoma by evaluating potential makers that show interruption of transmission of C. trachomatis
- To determine the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection among children aged 1 – 9 years old in Mpwapwa and Kalambo District, Tanzania
- To determine the associated risk factors of ocular Chlamydia infection among children aged 1 – 9 years old in Mpwapwa and Kalambo District, Tanzania
- To determine the usability of antibody test to detect Chlamydia antigen pgp3 using lateral flow assay
- To examine the longevity of the antibody response to trachoma antigens in a high and low-prevalence setting
Interrogating “big data” to develop a user-friendly analysis framework for gender equity in MDA to ensure no one is left behind in Neglected Tropical Disease interventions in Nigeria
To develop and pilot a standardised analytical framework for the spatial and temporal analysis of routinely collected gender disaggregated NTD programme data. This will allow increased understanding and spatial visualisation of the influence of gendered programmatic inputs, external geographic and social factors on the equity of programmatic outputs, particularly access to mass administration of medicines (MAM).
Trachomatous Trichiasis Management in Tanzania: Investigation of the productivity of case finding and referral of patients to trichiasis surgery services
One of important pillar of Trachoma elimination as a public health problem is to manage through epilation and surgery trachomatous trichiasis (TT) to reach in endemic district less than 0.1% of TT prevalence or less than 0.2% prevalence in adults of 15 years and older. However, surveys in 3 districts of Tanzania where numbers of TT surgeries were performed showed an unexpected higher prevalence despite intervention. This mixed methods study will help to address the main question as to why trachoma impact surveys demonstrating unexpectedly high TT prevalence in communities where TT surgical intervention is ongoing and how could this intervention/burden gap be addressed? The aim is to look at the case finding techniques effectiveness in all the communities and factors that affect TT referral and quality surgical services.
Developing a surveillance framework for the post-elimination phase of the lymphatic filariasis programme in Bangladesh
- Can the micro-stratification of lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmission assessment surveys positive case and clinical case data be used to identify, map and monitor transmission hotspots as part of an enhanced endgame surveillance strategy?
- Can targeted molecular xenomonitoring detect ongoing transmission [to the same extent as human surveillance] in defined LF transmission hotspots?
Improved delivery of / access to Morbidity Management and Disability Prevention (MMDP) / Disease Management, Disability and Inclusion (DMDI) for persons affected by lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, and/or konzo in Nampula, Mozambique
Formative: What is the capacity of the Mozambican health system in general, and the NTD programme more specifically, to provide MMDP/DMDI services for people affected by leprosy, LF and konzo, and what are some of the barriers and facilitators to access these services?
Intervention: Which strategies are currently in place to provide quality healthcare for persons with disabilities, especially those that are caused by leprosy, LF and konzo, and how are MMDP/DMDI services organized vis-à-vis other disease control programs/health service delivery platforms?
Reaching semi-nomadic groups using a test and treat (with doxycycline) strategy in a challenging onchocerciasis focus in West Region of Cameroon
- Is mobile outreach with a doxycycline test and treat strategy (TTd) an effective strategy in reducing onchocerciasis prevalence and intensity of infection amongst hard-to-reach nomadic groups in Massangam health area (HA)?
- What is the variation in prevalence of onchocerciasis and intensity of infection (community microfilaria load (CML)) in the different age and sex groups of hard-to-reach nomad community in the Massangam HA?
- What was the coverage of ivermectin mass drug administration in the nomad population with respect to the last round of ivermectin MDA?
- What is the cost of the mobile outreach strategy in this context, per person screened and treated?
Is there still LF transmission after successful TAS 3?
The Impact of an Integrated Health System Approach in Improving Access to Morbidity Management and Disability Prevention Services for Persons with Leprosy, Hydrocele, and Lymphoedema in Coastal Kenya
Formative: To what extent do individuals have quality of life and access to and utilize MMDP services within the healthcare system; and what are the barriers and facilitators (affordability, availability, approachability, acceptability, and appropriateness) of 1) access to and utilization of quality MMDP healthcare services and 2) management of morbidities at home?
Intervention: What is the effect of an integrated health system approach on access to MMDP healthcare services as measured by affordability, accessibility, acceptability, and availability; and on utilization of services and quality of life?
Post-validation survey for the elimination of blinding trachoma to evaluate the effectiveness of a serological surveillance strategy in two provinces of Morocco
Conduct district-wide field trials of the Pgp3 lateral flow assay to measure the seroprevalence of antibodies against the Chlamydia trachomatis antigen Pgp3 in low-prevalence settings.
Would the same programmatic decisions for Oncho Elimination Mapping be made based off of the Ov16 RDT results as compared to the Ov16 SD ELISA results in 7 woredas included in OEM in Ethiopia?
Evaluate the current status of transmission of onchocerciasis in a hyperendemic area treated for many years and in a hypoendemic area treated for lymphatic filariasis for 5 years using the Ov16 ELISA and supplemented by entomology results from a previous study
IMPRESS – Improving access to integrated Morbidity management and disability PREvention Services through Stigma reduction for people with lower limb lymphoedema in Ethiopia: Feasibility and quasi-experimental study
Formative: What is the capacity of the integrated morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) programme to incorporate a stigma reduction intervention for people with lower limb lymphoedema, and what are the barriers and facilitators to this?
Intervention: Is the stigma reduction intervention effective in increasing demand and access to services within an integrated MMDP programme for people with lower limb lymphoedema?
Operational research to develop an M&E study to guide a triple drug stopping decision for lymphatic filariasis in India
What is the indicator(s) and accompanying M&E strategy that enables country programs to determine when the risk of ongoing transmission of LF has been reduced so that IDA can be stopped with little risk of resurgence of transmission?
What is the effectiveness of appropriately dosed IDA in clearing microfilariae (Mf) from Mf positive people who (i) reported taking triple drug therapy with ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole (IDA) in August 2018, and (ii) did not report recently taking IDA.
This will be investigated by:
- assessing the baseline (current) Mf presence and density before re/treatment with IDA, against which post-treatment Mf presence and density can be compared
- assessing the peak plasma concentration levels of ivermectin, DEC and albendazole in treated Mf positive individuals to identify whether the recommended dosages of medications are sufficient for achieving effective plasma concentrations
- assessing Mf clearance one week following directly observed IDA re/treatment
Assessing drug coverage following mass drug administration to monitor the impact of the WHO recommended three-drug regimen of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis
To validate the reported coverage of the 2018 mass drug administration in American Samoa in order to assess the impact of triple drug therapy with ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole (IDA) for lymphatic filariasis on infection prevalence
A pilot study to identify meaningful and measurable targets for detecting the control of schistosomiasis-related morbidity in Africa. The overall study is designed to answer the following primary evaluation questions:
- What are the infection levels of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium below which there is little, or no, detectable schistosomiasis-associated morbidity?
- What are the optimal morbidity markers for S. mansoni and S. haematobium?
- What are the optimal species-specific morbidity goals for which schistosomiasis control programs should be aiming?
Collaborative effort to address intestinal worms through education, medical care, health assessments, quizzes/contests in school
The effectiveness of motivating locals to address intestinal worms through education, medical care and health assessments.
Operational research to compare the confirmatory mapping tool and xenomonitoring indicator (infectivity rate of L3 of Wuchereria bancrofti) in Monrovia to assess the necessity to implement MDA
What is the most appropriate method to evaluate the presence of W. bancrofti transmission in urban conurbations to establish if MDA is necessary for LF elimination?
Field friendly biometry to ease cohort studies in resource-limited settings: application to the Test and Treat for onchocerciasis project in Central Cameroon
Can a biometric recognition system, in the context of “Test and Treat”, facilitate individual follow-up by linking participant data at different time-points?
Pilot a strategy for mapping and treating Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis in Loa loa coendemic areas
Investigation of communities at increased risk of trachoma recrudescence & a model post-elimination surveillance strategy
Primary research question
Is there evidence of on-going or recent ocular Ct transmission in communities of northern Ghana felt to be at increased risk of recrudescence, at least two years since they were identified with Ct infection and or high anti-Pgp3 seroprevalence during pre-validation trachoma surveillance surveys?
Secondary research questions
What is the geographical extent of the boundaries of any persistent Ct infection and on-going transmission in the post-elimination setting?
What is the community-level (anti-Pgp3) prevalence of seropositivity for the multiplex bead array (MBA) (and possibly ELISA) as compared to the lateral flow assay (LFA)?
This study aims to determine if the addition of lymphatic stimulating activities to community-based home-care for lymphoedema can improve outcomes for people affecetd by moderate to late stage disease.
Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling
What is the potential distribution of mycetoma in Sudan and South Sudan? What are the most important factors associated with the spatial distriutional patterns of disease cases in Both countries.
How does the performance of the AP ELISA compare to the Ov16 SD ELISA, when conducted in a country lab?
Follow-up of positive cases of lymphatic filariasis after Transmission Assessment Survey (TAS) 2 and TAS 3 in Burkina Faso
Identify the sampling strategy for tracking positive cases after TAS 2 and TAS 3 that optimizes the chances of correctly identifying evidence of active transmission, while saving program resources
Morbidity management and disability prevention for persons with Lymphatic Filariasis and Leprosy: what is the impact of the integration of services on access to healthcare in Luangwa District of Zambia?
- Do existing programs or activities address integrated MMDP for patients living with LF and Leprosy?
- What is the impact of integrated MMDP in Luangwa district on access to healthcare?
Identifying the optimal delivery model for the identification, confirmation and referral of NTD cases requiring MMDP services within an integrated health systems approach to NTD care in Liberia
This social science study will address the following:
Formative question: What are the strengths and weaknesses of the four models for case identification, confirmation and referral currently being implemented in Liberia for NTDs?
Intervention question: What is the optimal model for implementing case identification, confirmation and referral of NTD cases requiring case management, in terms of equity, effectiveness, economy and efficiency within the health system?"
Improving access to Lymphatic Filariasis MMDP services through an enhanced evidence-based, cascade training model for health worker capacity strengthening in Ghana
This social science study will address the following:
Formative question: What were the successes and challenges of the LF MMDP pilot in the Upper East region for increasing the capacity of health workers of all levels and improving the ability of patients to manage LF morbidity?
Intervention question: Can a modified capacity strengthening package, developed based on the formative research results, be effective at increasing the capacity of health workers of all levels and improving the ability of patients to manage LF morbidity?
Whole genome sequencing of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis in Amhara region, Ethiopia, an area with persistent hyperendemic trachoma.
This study will address the characteristics of the ocular chlamydia trachomatis population structures within Amhara, a setting which has experienced repeated rounds of antibiotic for trachoma, and whether those circulating populations are different than known sequenced strains.
Understanding areas of increased trachoma risk (hotspots) through the implementation of a post validation trachoma surveillance strategy
To determine if there is evidence of on-going or recent transmission in the “hotspot” communities of increased risk two years after they were identified during the pre-validation surveys (clinical, antibody and infection data).