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NTD ConnectOR ~ Advanced search

Displaying 151 - 180 of 304

Novel immuno-proteomic strategies to develop a polyspecific, non-cold chain liquid snake antivenom with unparalleled sub-Saharan African efficacy

LSTM |

To develop a polyspecific, non-cold chain liquid snake antivenom with unparalleled sub-Saharan African efficacy

Countries:
Diseases: Snakebite

Evaluation and Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in KSA

LSTM |

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is exclusively transmitted by the bite of a female sand fly. In collaboration with the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health, we have developed a programme aiming to prevent and control CL in this country. The programme focuses, among other aspects, in developing a rapid diagnostic test based on the patient’s anti-alpha-Gal response, and in identifying markers for disease exposure. We recently found evidence that treatment efficacy against Old World CL varies with parasite species, geographical locations and the development of secondary infections. This has implications on the treatment of this debilitating disease. The severity of a leishmaniasis ulcer partly depends on the patient’s previous exposure to sand fly bites. This explains the increased protection against CL in individuals living in CL-endemic areas and supports development of potential vaccine models based on sand fly salivary proteins. Furthermore, Old World CL patients produce high levels of anti-Gal antibodies (i.e. recognise terminal alpha-galactosyl epitopes). This discovery is currently being exploited for the making of rapid diagnostic tools and a potential protective glycovaccine model against CL. We hope that these tools can soon be applied in other CL-endemic countries, including refugee settings.

Countries: Saudi Arabia
Diseases: Leishmaniasis

Doxycycline for Clinical Management of Filarial Lymphedema (India)

Determine whether doxycycline treatment daily for 6 weeks improves clinical outcomes (swelling, acute attacks) in lymphedema patients.

Countries: India

Impact of Malaria Vector Control & Status of Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in the Lake Zone of Tanzania

To assess filarial exposure in the study population and mosquito infection status prior to and after the start of intensified malaria control interventions.

Countries: Tanzania

Determination of the prevalence of LF infection in districts not included in LF control activities and of the basis for integrated implementation of LF - onchocerciasis elimination strategies in potentially co-endemic areas

Field validation of the diagnostic performance of the Wb123/Ov16 biplex rapid diagnostic test and Wb123 ELISA, compared to the filariasis test strip (FTS) in a setting initially found to be non-endemic for lymphatic filariasis, in which clinical cases have been identified.

Countries: Ghana

IDA Acceptability Study (Fiji)

Assess the overall acceptability of the 3-drug treatment in the community as compared to the 2-drug treatment

Countries: Fiji

IDA-Triple Drug Therapy Clinical Trial in Fiji

Clinical Trial Triple Drug Study for LF

Countries: Fiji

Field Validation of Wb123 monoplex, Haiti

To compare the performance of antigen (FTS) and antibody (Wb123 monoplex) tools in programmatic settings (TAS).

Preliminary Findings and Lessons Learned

The goal of this study is to compare the performance of antigen (FTS) and antibody (Wb123 monoplex, Wb123 ELISA, multiplex) tools in programmatic settings (TAS). In order to strengthen the existing TAS platform we need to better understand which diagnostic indicator(s) are best-suited for making programmatic decisions. The TAS was conducted in Trou de Nord and Plaisance EUs.  Both EUs passed the TAS, but positive FTS were identified (4 and 2, respectively). However the Wb123 RDT found ZERO positive children, of the over 2000 tested. While the Wb123 ELISA testing is still ongoing, this initial result agrees with findings from other studies, all of which suggest that the Wb123 RDT is too insensitive a tool to be of programmatic use.

Countries: Haiti

IDA Acceptability Study (India)

Assess the overall acceptability of the 3-drug treatment in the community as compared to the 2-drug treatment

Countries: India

TAS Strengthening in American Samoa

To evaluate strategies to improve the sensitivity of the TAS for detecting evidence of recent lymphatic filariasis transmission in an evaluation unit (EU). The TAS Strengthening Study in American Samoa is designed to assess additional indicators that may be added to the current TAS platform in order to strengthen the resulting stopping or surveillance decisions. A comprehensive analysis will be conducted to understand the correlation between antigen and antibody in adults and children with the mosquito data. A spatial analysis looking at microfoci of infection will also be conducted.  Xenomonitoring work to assess Aedes mosquitoes is underway.

Preliminary Findings and Lessons Learned

The ultimate goal of this study is to strengthen the existing TAS platform so that the programs can be more confident with their stopping and surveillance decisions.   In order to strengthen the existing TAS platform we need to better understand which target population(s) and diagnostic indicator(s) are best-suited for identifying areas with persistent transmission that is not expected to cease on its own, knowing that the answer may vary according the primary vector and stage of the program.  In the selected sites a community-based TAS was conducted using the standard sampling of 6-7 year olds while a community TAS (individuals >8 years) was conducted concurrently.  All samples were tested via FTS and DBS (for Wb123 ELISA).  In these same communities a molecular xenomonitoring study will take place and the mosquitoes will be tested for filarial DNA to relate back to the human specimens.  To date human sampling has been completed in all sites and laboratory analysis of the specimens is complete. Mosquito collection has been completed in Haiti and Tanzania and the PCR analysis has been completed in Haiti and is planned for Tanzania (pending the arrival of a new PCR machine).  In American Samoa xenomonitoring has been delayed due to weather conditions and arbovirus outbreaks; work is expected to commence spring 2018.

Countries: American Samoa

District-Level Integrated Mapping of Onchocerciasis, Lymphatic Filariasis, and Loiasis in Nigeria

  • To define a cost-effective and accurate method to map ivermectin-naïve districts for Onchocerciasis, Lymphatic Filariasis and Loiasis and identify districts eligible for safe treatment with ivermectin MDA.
  • To validate a statistical model of Loiasis prevalence and intensity by comparing the model results to data from a prevalence assessment.
Countries: Nigeria

TUMIKIA project

The TUMIKIA Project aims to determine whether combining school- and community-based deworming is more effective at controling and eliminating soil-transmitted helminths (STH or intestinal worms) in Kenya than school-based deworming alone. 

The two-year trial will provide the drug albendazole to all residents from 150 communities in Kwale County, Kenya. There are three study groups:

  1. Base: annual school-based deworming (ages 2-14)
  2. Increased coverage: annual school- and community-based deworming (ages 2-99)
  3. Increased coverage and frequency: bi-annual school- and community-based deworming (ages 2-99)

TUMIKIA stands for 'Tuangamize Minyoo Kenya Imarisha Afya,' which means “eradicate worms in Kenya to improve health,” in Swahili. 

Download the TUMIKIA Research Brief [pdf]

Countries: Kenya

Evaluation of alternative indicators for stopping trachoma mass drug administration

To assess the relationships between the prevalence of the clinical sign TF compared to prevalence of infection and antibody in Chikwawa and Mchinji districts

Countries: Malawi
Diseases: Trachoma

Trachoma in the Western Pacific

Determine whether current or historic C. trachomatis (Ct) infection can be detected, and whether it is associated with clinical signs of ‘trachomatous inflammation – follicular’ (TF) in Vanuatu and Kiribati

Determine the utility of infection testing as a tool for operational surveillance and impact assessment in trachoma-endemic environments.

Countries: Kiribati | Vanuatu
Diseases: Trachoma

Integrated Transmission Assessment Survey (iTAS) in Burkina Faso

To study the feasibility of LF and Oncho (Filariases) integrated transmission assessment survey (iTAS)  according to both LF and Onchocerciasis  WHO elimination guidelines

Countries: Burkina Faso

Integrated Transmission Assessment Survey (iTAS) in Nigeria

To study the feasibility of LF and Oncho (Filariases) integrated transmission assessment survey iTAS) according to both LF and Onchocerciasis WHO elimination guidelines

Countries: Nigeria

TAS Strengthening in the Philippines

To determine if there is evidence of ongoing transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Mindoro Oriental, following a TAS 2 failure.

Countries: Philippines

Bangladesh STH Diagnostic Comparison: PCR vs. Kato-Katz

To determine if a standardized multi-parallel-PCR assay is a more sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting Hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides prevalence compared to the Kato-Katz stool test.

Countries: Bangladesh

Understanding the best uses of the Supervisor's Coverage Tool (SCT) for monitoring school-based distributions

  • To use the Supervisor's Coverage Tool (SCT) to monitor school-based deworming;
  • To determine the feasibility of utilizing the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) methodology in a school-based SCT; and 
  • To apply a checklist in schools to elicit information about the performance of the MDA.

While the Supervisor’s Coverage Tool (SCT), a rapid in-process monitoring tool for improving mass drug administration (MDA) coverage, has been approved by WHO for use in communities, questions still remain about its utility for school-based sampling. As a result, the SCT was implemented in 20 randomly selected schools in each of six sub-counties (used as Supervision Areas) in three Kenyan counties in March 2017. A total of 120 students were selected and interviewed. 

Findings and lessons learned:

  • The coverage for albendazole was classified as “good”, meaning above the WHO threshold, in 5 of the 6 SAs; however, only 1 SA was classified as having “good” coverage for praziquantel. In 3 of the 6 SAs, the Praziquantel coverage was classified as “inadequate”, including an SA that did not receive a supply of praziquantel to distribute.
  • The most common reasons for not swallowing the drugs were students’ absences and drugs being out of stock or expired. The most common reasons for refusing intake of praziquantel were fear of side effects and religious beliefs, including misinformation coming from teachers to students about beliefs that albendazole was safe for all children, whereas praziquantel was dangerous and only reserved for sick children.
  • Some of the challenges during the SCT activity were schools that operated half day, schools that had ongoing examinations, and unforeseen closure of a school on the day of SCT implementation, which made the random selection of students difficult. In addition, when an absent student or a student over 15 years of age (ineligible due to age range) was selected, it resulted in a loss of time since the selection needed to be repeated. Class interruptions to conduct the study were also not welcomed by some schools.
  • While implementing the SCT in schools seems efficient compared to community SCT implementation, it is important to make sure that enrolment registers are accurate. Often, teachers at the schools with incomplete registers do not want to be held accountable.
  • The cost of the SCT could be greatly reduced by implementing it in a shorter time period of three days instead of five, and with a pair of individuals per SA instead of four. The SCT can easily be integrated into routine supervisory activities as part of the MDA, and it can be conducted immediately after the MDA. It is a feasible activity that should be considered for widespread adoption. 
Countries: Kenya

Laboratory analysis of Ov16 ELISA and Skin snip PCR to support surveillance activities in National programs. Multi-country comparison of diagnostic tools to detect Onchocerca volvulus.

To compare the performance of the diagnostic tools currently available for O. volvulus in terms of their relative sensitivity, species-specificity and practical use by countries.  Comparison of the utility of these tools for mapping and surveillance in settings with different levels of endemicity for onchocerciasis (Oncho), lymphatic filariasis (LF) and/or loiasis.

Countries: Burkina Faso
Diseases: Onchocerciasis

Integrated Mapping of Onchocerciasis, Lymphatic Filariasis, and Loiasis in Cameroon

To pilot a strategy for mapping and treating Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis in Loa loa co-endemic areas.

Countries: Cameroon

Field-testing a Lateral Flow Assay for anti-Chlamydial Antibody Responses

To field-test the Pgp3 lateral flow assay to compare data obtained in the field on the rapid test to that from DBS collected from the same individual tested on the Pgp3 multiplex bead array.

Countries: Tanzania
Diseases: Trachoma

Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis and cataract in northern Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional study

Is there an association between podoconiosis and two common eye diseases; cataract and trachomatous trichiasis?

Countries:
Diseases: Podoconiosis | Trachoma

BURDEN ASSESSMENT OF PODOCONIOSIS IN WAYU TUKA WOREDA, EAST WOLLEGA ZONE, WESTERN ETHIOPIA

What is the burden of podoconiosis lymphoedema and acute attack in Western Ethiopia?

 

Countries:
Diseases: Podoconiosis

Interventions in Persistent Hot-Spots in Kenya

Will providing enhanced MDA at the community level while achieving treatment coverage of 75% or greater in children (5-17) and adults substantially decrease S. mansoni infection in previously identified persistent hot-spot communities?  

Countries: Kenya
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Xenomonitoring Surveillance

Is molecular detection of schistosome infection (patent and pre-patent) in snails a useful tool for program managers as prevalence and intensity of infection in people approaches very low levels?

Countries: Tanzania
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Interventions in Persistent Hot-Spots in Tanzania

How do villages which do not show substantial decreases in the prevalence of schistosomiasis despite repeated, high coverage mass drug administration (persistent hot-spot villages) differ from villages which show substantial decrease in prevalence across various factors (declining prevalence villages)?

Countries: Tanzania
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Economic analysis in SCORE projects

Economic evaluation of SCORE projects with priority given to elimination studies

 

Countries: Tanzania | Cote d'Ivoire
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Triple Drug Therapy for LF

Comparison of safety profile and acceptability between triple drug therapy (IVM,DEC,ALB) and standard two-drug therapy (DEC, ALB), plus STH evaluation.

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