Cameroon

Country operational research priorities pending.

Studies

To improve STH detection by developing a reliable and easy to perform molecular diagnostic test for epidemiological surveillance and post-elimination monitoring of STH

Districts:

Through funding from the Wellcome Trust to develop a global atlas of podoconiosis. We aim to advance new knowledge on the geographical distribution and spatial epidemiology of the disease.

i. Conduct national cross-sectional surveys in selected countries to validate the environmental predictive model developed using the mapping data in Ethiopia.

ii. Create evidence consensus maps, develop risk maps and ground-truthing work and delineate the spatial distribution and geographical limits of podoconiosis globally.

iii. Estimate the global burden of podoconiosis by quantifying the number affected, the population at risk and DALYs attributable.

iv. Estimate how much it will cost to control or eliminate podoconiosis globally.

 

Districts:
Diseases: Podoconiosis

To determine if a standardized multi-parallel-PCR assay is a more sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting Hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Schistosoma mansoni prevalence compared to the Kato-Katz stool test.

To pilot a strategy for mapping and treating Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis in Loa loa co-endemic areas.

Districts: Garoua-Boulai

To assess if transmission assessment surveys (TAS) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) are a feasible platform to integrate transmission assessment for onchocerciasis, using the same age group (6-7 years old) and the same prevalence threshold (<2%) that the LF programs utilize.

1. To perform the TAS for stopping LF MDA and use it as platform for Oncho impact assessment.
2. To assess the level of endemicity of Oncho following at least five rounds of MDA in hypo, meso and hyper endemic districts.
3. To study the performance of the Wb123/Ov16 Biplex rapid diagnostic test (RDT) to assess Oncho and LF transmission interruption.

 

Preliminary study findings:

  • This study involved an integrated impact assessment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis using the LF TAS platform and the serologic rapid text Biplex in the Northern area of Cameroon.
  • The study sites covered 31 health districts in the Far-North and North regions, constituting nine evaluation units, for which TAS1 was planned.
  • Community-based cluster surveys were conducted collecting GPS and demographic information, lymphedema symptoms, and testing by FTS, by Wb123/Ov16 Biplex, and by Night Blood Smear of 6 and 7 year old children.
  • In total, 13,957 children were recruited from 267 enumeration units (villages).
  • Ten children showed evidence of LF exposure or infection: 4 were positive by FTS and 6 were positive by Wb123 (via biplex).  No children tested positive for both FTS and Wb123. 
  • Night blood smears - conducted in children who were positive by FTS and by Wb123/Ov16 Biplex - were all negative.
  • For onchocerciasis, one individual was Ov16 positive (by Biplex).

In conclusion, all nine evaluation units passed the TAS1 assessment. As for onchocerciasis, study results are consistent with the previous hypo-endemic status of the area.

Districts:

This is a cross-reactivity evaluation of rapid tests detecting Wb123 antibodies. The test should perform similarly in sub-populations of individuals who are positive and negative for other filarial diseases, most importantly Loa loa. This field evaluation will determine the specificity of the tests in two separate populations, those positive and negative for Loa loa, and will be used to inform the product design and the product insert. This evaluation will recruit adults and children from regions that are known to have Loa loa in Cameroon.

 The study’s principal objective is to determine test specificity in individuals who are positive and negative for the filarial worm Loa loa. Secondary objectives are to determine the test specificity in individuals who are positive and negative for Mansonella perstans, and identify failure modes and failure rates of the rapid tests under surveillance conditions.

Defining what are the appropriate tools to map LF in Loa endemic areas. Identifying if there is a Loa infection threshold that triggers the cross-reactivity in the ICT cards.

Districts:

To determine if the circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) rapid diagnostic test is as effective as the Kato-Katz (KK) test in diagnosing S. guinensis

Districts:
Diseases: Schistosomiasis

To assess the specificity of diagnostic tools in Loa co-endemic areas and to conduct a prospective assessment of the impact of ALB MDA and Vector control on malaria, LF and STH indicators.

Districts:

POC/CCA screening/mapping tool initial Studies

Districts:
Diseases: Schistosomiasis